Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Flow Mechanism and Characteristics of Pressure-Equalizing Film Along the Surface of a Moving Underwater Vehicle

[+] Author and Article Information
Guihui Ma

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China
e-mail: 15B902026@hit.edu.cn

Fu Chen

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China
e-mail: chenfu@hit.edu.cn

Jianyang Yu

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China
e-mail: yujianyang@hit.edu.cn

Huaping Liu

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China
e-mail: lhphgd@163.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 17, 2017; final manuscript received October 14, 2017; published online December 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Praveen Ramaprabhu.

J. Fluids Eng 140(4), 041103 (Dec 04, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1043; doi: 10.1115/1.4038394 History: Received January 17, 2017; Revised October 14, 2017

Pressure-equalizing film is a slice of air layer attached to vehicle exterior with nearly uniform inside pressure, similar to ventilated cavity in composition; it is generated through exhaust process of the inside air chamber as vehicle emerges from deep water, and can reduce the lateral force and pitching moment that vertical launched underwater vehicle suffered. In this work, the emerging process of vehicle from water with pressure-equalizing exhaust was numerically calculated to investigate the evolution and flow characteristics of the generated pressure-equalizing film along its surface. Results indicated that during the whole exhaust process, the film can be obviously classified into different sections according to the distribution of phase volume fraction or pressure. The exhaust velocity ratio and flow rate from vehicle interior chamber were also found to increase as vehicle moves. In the analysis of flow structures, vortex structures such as the horseshoe vortex, “detour-separation” vortex, and counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) can be figured out in the region of the exhaust hole. Under the effect of re-entrant jet, water around the film tail would be entrained upstream then enter the surface film to mix with the pressure-equalizing air. It leads to the happening of the three-dimensional (3D) wall vortex in the flow field.

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Fig. 1

(a) The emerging process of vehicle under submarine horizontal movement and (b) schematic of pressure-equalizing exhaust and the involved basic flow problems

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Fig. 2

Geometrical model and computational domain of underwater vehicle as well as the relevant mesh

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Fig. 3

The experimental facilities and comparison of results between numerical and experimental data: (a) schematic of vertical gas ejection system of a projectile with horizontal moving ability, (b) comparison of distribution of volume fraction and bubble shape between experiment and simulation, and (c) comparison of displacement between experiment and simulation

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the pressure coefficient with different grid systems

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Fig. 5

Distribution of phase volume fraction, pressure coefficient, axial velocity coefficient, and streamline: (a) distribution of volume fraction α on the vehicle surface at different T¯ (the marked number), (b) film shape on vehicle surface and symmetry plane at T¯= 2.0, (c) Distribution of p¯, V¯y along the axial line of underwater vehicle at T¯= 0.5, and (d) Distribution of α, p¯, V¯y and streamline on surface of underwater vehicle at T¯= 0.5 (the marked line whose shape is similar to the outline of air film on vehicle surface is the contour line where α = 0.5)

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Fig. 6

Distribution of phase volume fraction, pressure coefficient and streamline at T¯=1.0 and 2.0: (a) distribution of p¯, V¯y along the axial line of underwater vehicle, (b) distribution of α,p¯,V¯y, and streamline on surface of underwater vehicle at T¯=1.0 (the marked line whose shape is similar to the outline of air film on vehicle surface is the contour line where α=0.5), and (c) distribution of α, p¯, V¯y and streamline on vehicle surface and symmetry plane at T¯=2.0

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Fig. 7

Schematic of the observation surface

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Fig. 8

Distribution of phase volume fraction, pressure coefficient, and streamline at T¯=1.0 and 2.0

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Fig. 9

Distribution of phase volume fraction α and streamline in the axial sections at exhaust hole

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Fig. 10

Distribution of 3D streamline near exhaust hole

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Fig. 11

Distribution of phase volume fraction α and streamline in the vicinity of film tail

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Fig. 12

The flow pattern on the vehicle surface around the jet orifice

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Fig. 13

Temporal variation of pressure ratio, density, flow velocity, axial flow velocity, and flow angle

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Fig. 14

Temporal variation of exhaust flow rate and film length

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Fig. 15

Distribution of circumferential pressure standard deviation along axial direction of vehicle




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