Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Experimental Study on Cavitation-Induced Air Release in Orifice Flows

[+] Author and Article Information
Karoline Kowalski

Chair of Process Technology,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: kowalski@vtp.ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Stefan Pollak

Chair of Particle Technology,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: pollak@fvt.ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Romuald Skoda

Chair of Hydraulic Fluid Machinery,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: Romuald.Skoda@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Jeanette Hussong

Chair of Hydraulic Fluid Machinery,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: Jeanette.Hussong@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 30, 2017; final manuscript received December 8, 2017; published online January 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hui Hu.

J. Fluids Eng 140(6), 061201 (Jan 30, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1546; doi: 10.1115/1.4038730 History: Received August 30, 2017; Revised December 08, 2017

Cavitation leads to rapid degassing of fluids. Up to date, there is a lack of model approaches of cavitation-induced degassing. The aim of the present study is to gain a more thorough knowledge of the process. Therefore, the relation between cavitation intensity and air release is investigated experimentally for an orifice flow as function of cavitation number. For this, shadowgraphy imaging is used to visualize regions of steam and air volume downstream of the orifice. Analysis of the images shows a strongly nonlinear scaling behavior for both cavitation intensity and air release as a function of cavitation number. Three distinct regimes could be identified for cavitation-induced gas release. While an exponential scaling was found at high cavitation intensities, degassing rates appear to be nearly constant in the intermediate cavitation number range. Empirical scaling laws are given here that may serve as first model approach for the prediction of cavitation induced air release behind flow constrictions.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dular, M. , Griessler-Bulc, T. , Gutierrez-Aguirre, I. , Heath, E. , Kosjek, T. , Krivograd Klemencic, A. , Oder, M. , Petkovsek, M. , Racki, N. , Ravnikar, M. , Sarc, A. , Sirok, B. , Zupanc, M. , Zitnik, M. , and Kompare, B. , 2016, “Use of Hydrodynamic Cavitation in (Waste)Water Treatment,” Ultrason. Sonochem., 29, pp. 577–588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gogate, P. R. , and Bhosale, G. S. , 2013, “Comparison of Effectiveness of Acoustic and Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Combined Treatment Schemes for Degradation of Dye Wastewaters,” Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif., 71, pp. 59–69. [CrossRef]
Kumar, P. S. , Kumar, M. S. , and Pandit, A. , 2000, “Experimental Quantification of Chemical Effects of Hydrodynamic Cavitation,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 55(9), pp. 1633–1639. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, D.-Y. , and Plesset, M. S. , 1961, “Theory of Rectified Diffusion of Mass Into Gas Bubbles,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 33(2), pp. 206–215. [CrossRef]
Crum, L. , 1984, “Acoustic Cavitation Series: Part Five Rectified Diffusion,” Ultrasonics, 22(9), pp. 215–223. [CrossRef]
Naji Meidani, A. , and Hasan, M. , 2004, “Mathematical and Physical Modelling of Bubble Growth Due to Ultrasound,” Appl. Math. Model., 28(4), pp. 333–351. [CrossRef]
Leong, T. , Wu, S. , Kentish, S. , and Ashokkumar, M. , 2010, “Growth of Bubbles by Rectified Diffusion in Aqueous Surfactant Solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. C, 114(47), pp. 20141–20145. [CrossRef]
Peters, F. , and Els, C. , 2012, “An Experimental Study on Slow and Fast Bubbles in Tap Water,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 82, pp. 194–199. [CrossRef]
Nüllig, M. , and Peters, F. , 2013, “Diffusion of Small Gas Bubbles Into Liquid Studied by the Rotary Chamber Technique,” Chem. Ing. Tech., 85(7), pp. 1074–1079. [CrossRef]
Mørch, K. A. , 2015, “Cavitation Inception From Bubble Nuclei,” Interface Focus, 5(5), p. 20150006. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schrank, K. , Murrenhoff, H. , and Stammen, C. , 2013, “Measurements of Air Absorption and Air Release Characteristics in Hydraulic Oils at Low Pressure,” ASME Paper No. FPMC2013-4450.
Yan, Z. , Liu, J. , Chen, B. , Cheng, X. , and Yang, J. , 2015, “Fluid Cavitation Detection Method With Phase Demodulation of Ultrasonic Signal,” Appl. Acoust., 87, pp. 198–204. [CrossRef]
Jaworek, A. , Krupa, A. , and Trela, M. , 2004, “Capacitance Sensor for Void Fraction Measurement in Water/Steam Flows,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 15(5–6), pp. 317–324. [CrossRef]
Canière, H. , T'Joen, C. , Willockx, A. , and De Paepe, M. , 2008, “Capacitance Signal Analysis of Horizontal Two-Phase Flow in a Small Diameter Tube,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(3), pp. 892–904. [CrossRef]
Yang, H. , Kim, D. , and Kim, M. , 2003, “Void Fraction Measurement Using Impedance Method,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 14(4–5), pp. 151–160. [CrossRef]
Dunn, P. F. , Thomas, F. O. , Davis, M. P. , and Dorofeeva, I. E. , 2010, “Experimental Characterization of Aviation-Fuel Cavitation,” Phys. Fluids, 22(11), p. 117102. [CrossRef]
Dorofeeva, I. , Thomas, F. , and Dunn, P. , 2009, “Cavitation of JP-8 Fuel in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle: Experiments and Modeling,” Seventh International Symposium on Cavitation, Ann Arbor, MI, Aug. 16–20. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/84300
Ji, B. , Luo, X. , Wang, X. , Peng, X. , Wu, Y. , and Xu, H. , 2011, “Unsteady Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Turbulent Flow Around a Highly Skewed Model Marine Propeller,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(1), p. 011102. [CrossRef]
Pereira, F. , Salvatore, F. , and Di Felice, F. , 2004, “Measurement and Modeling of Propeller Cavitation in Uniform Inflow,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 126(4), pp. 671–679. [CrossRef]
Dular, M. , Bachert, R. , Stoffel, B. , and Sirok, B. , 2005, “Experimental Evaluation of Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Flow Around Hydrofoil,” Eur. J. Mech.—B/Fluids, 24(4), pp. 522–538. [CrossRef]
Martynov, S. B. , Mason, D. J. , and Heikal, M. R. , 2006, “Numerical Simulation of Cavitation Flows Based on Their Hydrodynamic Similarity,” Int. J. Engine Res., 7(3), pp. 283–296. [CrossRef]
Bakir, F. , Rey, R. , Gerber, A. , Belamri, T. , and Hutchinson, B. , 2004, “Numerical and Experimental Investigations of the Cavitating Behavior of an Inducer,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 10(1), pp. 15–25. [CrossRef]
Lau, Y. , Deen, N. , and Kuipers, J. , 2013, “Development of an Image Measurement Technique for Size Distribution in Dense Bubbly Flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 94, pp. 20–29. [CrossRef]
Bröder, D. , and Sommerfeld, M. , 2007, “Planar Shadow Image Velocimetry for the Analysis of the Hydrodynamics in Bubbly Flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 18(8), pp. 2513–2528. [CrossRef]
Duke, D. J. , Swantek, A. B. , Kastengren, A. L. , and Powell, C. F. , 2015, “X-Ray Diagnostics for Cavitating Nozzle Flow,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 656, p. 012110. [CrossRef]
Iben, U. , Wolf, F. , Freudigmann, H.-A. , Fröhlich, J. , and Heller, W. , 2015, “Optical Measurements of Gas Bubbles in Oil behind a Cavitating Micro-Orifice Flow,” Exp. Fluids, 56(6), p. 114.
Freudigmann, H.-A. , Iben, U. , and Pelz, P. F. , 2015, “Air Release Measurements of V-Oil 1404 Downstream of a Micro Orifice at Chocked Flow Conditions,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 656(1), p. 012113.
Freudigmann, H.-A. , Dörr, A. , Iben, U. , and Pelz, P. F. , 2017, “Modeling of Cavitation-Induced Air Release Phenomena in Micro-Orifice Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 139(11), p. 111301. [CrossRef]
ISO, 2008, “Uncertainty of Measurement—Part 3: Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. https://www.iso.org/standard/50461.html
Nurick, W. H. , 1976, “Orifice Cavitation and Its Effect on Spray Mixing,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 98(4), pp. 681–687. [CrossRef]
Clift, R. , Grace, J. R. , and Weber, M. E. , 1978, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, Academic Press, New York.
Kowalski, K. , Pollak, S. , and Hussong, J. , 2017, “Experimental Investigation of Cavitation Induced Air Release,” EPJ Web of Conferences, 143, p. 02054. [CrossRef]
Iben, U. , Morozov, A. , Winklhofer, E. , and Wolf, F. , 2010, “Laser-Pulse Interferometry Applied to High-Pressure Fluid Flow in Micro Channels,” Exp. Fluids, 50(3), pp. 597–611. [CrossRef]
Tomov, P. , Khelladi, S. , Ravelet, F. , Sarraf, C. , Bakir, F. , and Vertenoeuil, P. , 2016, “Experimental Study of Aerated Cavitation in a Horizontal Venturi Nozzle,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 70, pp. 85–95. [CrossRef]
Shames, I. H. , 1992, Mechanics of Fluids, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, Singapore.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Example of (a) intensity image in air release region for Pin = 9.5 bar, Pout = 0.7 bar and (b) detected objects (white) with the applied MATLAB® routine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Flow characteristics for Pin = 7.8 bar and 9.5 bar, Bernoulli regime indicated by solid line, choked flow by dashed line with air release images for Pin = 9.5 bar and (a) Pout = 1.7 bar, (b) Pout = 1.0 bar, and (c) Pout = 0.4 bar. Plotted are mean values as described in 3.1. Error bars of the standard deviation of the mean are not visible in the figure. s(q¯,m˙)<0.57%, s(q¯,ΔP)<0.22%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Example of (a) snapshots in cavitation region and (b) corresponding intensity image for Pin = 9.5 bar, Pout = 1.2 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Volume fraction of released air φ for Pin = 7.8 bar and 9.5 bar. Plotted are mean values, error bars show the standard deviation of results from N = 200 images from processing described in Sec. 3.2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Volume fraction of released air φ for different cavitation intensities ψ and inlet pressures of Pin = 7.8 and 9.5 bar. Fit function in section 1: φ(ψ) = −0.4 · exp(−0.2476·ψ) + 0.2972, R2=0.9748; section 2: φ(ψ)=7.833×10−5· exp(−0.1187·ψ) + 0.2812, R2=0.8663.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cavitation intensity for Pin = 7.8 bar and 9.5 bar with snapshots of cavitation region ((a)–(c) correspond to the same operation points as in Fig. 2). Plotted are mean values, error bars show the standard deviation of results from N = 200 images from processing described in Sec. 3.3.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of the (a) experimental setup, (b) orifice, and (c) photograph of test section for shadowgraphy imaging

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Bubble size distribution for Pin = 7.8, 9.5 bar and different cavitation numbers



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In