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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Experimental Study on Cavitation-Induced Air Release in Orifice Flows

[+] Author and Article Information
Karoline Kowalski

Chair of Process Technology,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: kowalski@vtp.ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Stefan Pollak

Chair of Particle Technology,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: pollak@fvt.ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Romuald Skoda

Chair of Hydraulic Fluid Machinery,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: Romuald.Skoda@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Jeanette Hussong

Chair of Hydraulic Fluid Machinery,
Ruhr University Bochum,
Universitätsstr. 150,
Bochum 44801, Germany
e-mail: Jeanette.Hussong@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 30, 2017; final manuscript received December 8, 2017; published online January 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hui Hu.

J. Fluids Eng 140(6), 061201 (Jan 30, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1546; doi: 10.1115/1.4038730 History: Received August 30, 2017; Revised December 08, 2017

Cavitation leads to rapid degassing of fluids. Up to date, there is a lack of model approaches of cavitation-induced degassing. The aim of the present study is to gain a more thorough knowledge of the process. Therefore, the relation between cavitation intensity and air release is investigated experimentally for an orifice flow as function of cavitation number. For this, shadowgraphy imaging is used to visualize regions of steam and air volume downstream of the orifice. Analysis of the images shows a strongly nonlinear scaling behavior for both cavitation intensity and air release as a function of cavitation number. Three distinct regimes could be identified for cavitation-induced gas release. While an exponential scaling was found at high cavitation intensities, degassing rates appear to be nearly constant in the intermediate cavitation number range. Empirical scaling laws are given here that may serve as first model approach for the prediction of cavitation induced air release behind flow constrictions.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of the (a) experimental setup, (b) orifice, and (c) photograph of test section for shadowgraphy imaging

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Flow characteristics for Pin = 7.8 bar and 9.5 bar, Bernoulli regime indicated by solid line, choked flow by dashed line with air release images for Pin = 9.5 bar and (a) Pout = 1.7 bar, (b) Pout = 1.0 bar, and (c) Pout = 0.4 bar. Plotted are mean values as described in 3.1. Error bars of the standard deviation of the mean are not visible in the figure. s(q¯,m˙)<0.57%, s(q¯,ΔP)<0.22%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Example of (a) intensity image in air release region for Pin = 9.5 bar, Pout = 0.7 bar and (b) detected objects (white) with the applied MATLAB® routine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Example of (a) snapshots in cavitation region and (b) corresponding intensity image for Pin = 9.5 bar, Pout = 1.2 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Volume fraction of released air φ for Pin = 7.8 bar and 9.5 bar. Plotted are mean values, error bars show the standard deviation of results from N = 200 images from processing described in Sec. 3.2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cavitation intensity for Pin = 7.8 bar and 9.5 bar with snapshots of cavitation region ((a)–(c) correspond to the same operation points as in Fig. 2). Plotted are mean values, error bars show the standard deviation of results from N = 200 images from processing described in Sec. 3.3.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Volume fraction of released air φ for different cavitation intensities ψ and inlet pressures of Pin = 7.8 and 9.5 bar. Fit function in section 1: φ(ψ) = −0.4 · exp(−0.2476·ψ) + 0.2972, R2=0.9748; section 2: φ(ψ)=7.833×10−5· exp(−0.1187·ψ) + 0.2812, R2=0.8663.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Bubble size distribution for Pin = 7.8, 9.5 bar and different cavitation numbers

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