0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

# Dynamic Behaviors of Re-Entrant Jet and Cavity Shedding During Transitional Cavity Oscillation on NACA0015 Hydrofoil

[+] Author and Article Information
Bangxiang Che

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: chebx_zju@zju.edu.cn

Linlin Cao

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: caolinlin@zju.edu.cn

Ning Chu

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: chuning@zju.edu.cn

Dmitriy Likhachev

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: 2438757704@qq.com

Dazhuan Wu

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: wudazhuan@zju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 11, 2018; final manuscript received October 5, 2018; published online December 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Satoshi Watanabe.

J. Fluids Eng 141(6), 061101 (Dec 10, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1097; doi: 10.1115/1.4041716 History: Received February 11, 2018; Revised October 05, 2018

## Abstract

Transitional cavity shedding is known as the stage of attached cavitation with high instability and distinct periodicity. In this study, we experimentally investigated the dynamic characteristics of transitional cavity ($0.8≤L/c<1$) shedding on NACA0015 hydrofoil with high-speed video observation and synchronous pressure measurement. In the partial cavity ($0.4) oscillation, the sheet cavitation grew along the chord with good spanwise uniformity, and the middle-entrant jet played a dominant role in cavity shedding. Meanwhile, in the transitional cavity oscillation, the previous shedding cavity exhibited a prohibitive effect on the growth of sheet cavitation on the hydrofoil, resulting in concave cavity closure line. Moreover, two symmetrical side-entrant jets originated at the near-wall ends and induced the two-stage shedding phenomenon. The aft and fore parts of the sheet cavitation shed separated as different forms and eventually merged into the large-scale cloud cavity.

<>

## References

Wade, R. , and Acosta, A. , 1966, “ Experimental Observations on the Flow past a Plano-Convex Hydrofoil,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 88(1), pp. 273–282.
Arndt, R. E. , Song, C. , Kjeldsen, M. , He, J. , and Keller, A. , 2000, “ Instability of Partial Cavitation: A Numerical/Experimental Approach,” 23rd Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Val de Reuil, France.
Sato, K. , Tanada, M. , Monden, S. , and Tsujimoto, Y. , 2002, “ Observations of Oscillating Cavitation on a Flat Plate Hydrofoil,” JSME Int. J., Ser. B, 45(3), pp. 646–654.
Tsujimoto, Y. , Watanabe, S. , and Horiguchi, H. , 2008, “ Cavitation Instabilities of Hydrofoils and Cascades,” Int. J. Fluid Mach. Syst., 1(1), pp. 38–46.
Watanabe, S. , Yamaoka, W. , and Furukawa, A. , 2014, “ Unsteady Lift and Drag Characteristics of Cavitating Clark Y-11.7% Hydrofoil,” IOP Conf. Series: Earth Environ. Sci., 22(5), p. 052009.
Le, Q. , Franc, J. P. , and Michel, J. M. , 1993, “ Partial Cavities: Global Behavior and Mean Pressure Distribution,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 115(2), pp. 243–248.
Kawanami, Y. , Kato, H. , Yamaguchi, H. , Tanimura, M. , and Tagaya, Y. , 1997, “ Mechanism and Control of Cloud Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 119(4), pp. 788–794.
Pham, T. , Larrarte, F. , and Fruman, D. , 1999, “ Investigation of Unsteady Sheet Cavitation and Cloud Cavitation Mechanisms,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 121(2), pp. 289–296.
Callenaere, M. , Franc, J.-P. , Michel, J.-M. , and Riondet, M. , 2001, “ The Cavitation Instability Induced by the Development of a Re-Entrant Jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 444, pp. 223–256.
Leroux, J.-B. , Astolfi, J. A. , and Billard, J. Y. , 2004, “ An Experimental Study of Unsteady Partial Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 126(1), pp. 94–101.
Leroux, J.-B. , Coutier-Delgosha, O. , and Astolfi, J. A. , 2005, “ A Joint Experimental and Numerical Study of Mechanisms Associated to Instability of Partial Cavitation on Two-Dimensional Hydrofoil,” Phys. Fluids, 17(5), p. 052101.
Coutier-Delgosha, O. , Stutz, B. , Vabre, A. , and Legoupil, S. , 2007, “ Analysis of Cavitating Flow Structure by Experimental and Numerical Investigations,” J. Fluid Mech., 578, pp. 171–222.
Iga, Y. , Hashizume, K. , and Yoshida, Y. , 2011, “ Numerical Analysis of Three Types of Cavitation Surge in Cascade,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(7), p. 071102.
Kobayashi, H. , Hagiwara, R. , Kawasaki, S. , Uchiumi, M. , Yada, K. , and Iga, Y. , 2017, “ Numerical Analysis of Suppression Effect of Asymmetric Slit on Cavitation Instabilities in Cascade,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 140(2), p. 021302.
Pelz, P. , Keil, T. , and Groß, T. , 2017, “ The Transition From Sheet to Cloud Cavitation,” J. Fluid Mech., 817, pp. 439–454.
Watanabe, S. , Tsujimoto, Y. , and Furukawa, A. , 2001, “ Theoretical Analysis of Transitional and Partial Cavity Instabilities,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 123(3), pp. 692–697.
Fujii, A. , Kawakami, D. T. , Tsujimoto, Y. , and Arndt, R. E. , 2007, “ Effect of Hydrofoil Shapes on Partial and Transitional Cavity Oscillations,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 129(6), pp. 669–673.
Song, C. , and Qin, Q. , 2001, “ Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Cavitation Flows,” Fourth International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2001), Pasadena, CA.
Wang, G. , and Ostoja-Starzewski, M. , 2007, “ Large Eddy Simulation of a Sheet/Cloud Cavitation on a NACA0015 Hydrofoil,” Appl. Math. Modell., 31(3), pp. 417–447.
Kawakami, D. T. , Fuji, A. , Tsujimoto, Y. , and Arndt, R. , 2008, “ An Assessment of the Influence of Environmental Factors on Cavitation Instabilities,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 130(3), p. 031303.
Daido, H. , Watanabe, S. , and Tsuda, S.-I. , 2015, “ Effects of Dissolved Gas on Unsteady Cavitating Flow Around a Clark Y-11.7% Hydrofoil,” ASME Paper No. AJKFluids2015-05488.
Ganesh, H. , Mäkiharju, S. A. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2016, “ Bubbly Shock Propagation as a Mechanism for Sheet-to-Cloud Transition of Partial Cavities,” J. Fluid Mech., 802, pp. 37–78.
Ganesh, H. , Mäkiharju, S. A. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2015, “ Interaction of a Compressible Bubbly Flow With an Obstacle Placed Within a Shedding Partial Cavity,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 656(1), p. 012151.
Ganesh, H. , 2015, “ Bubbly Shock Propagation as a Cause of Sheet to Cloud Transition of Partial Cavitation and Stationary Cavitation Bubbles Forming on a Delta Wing Vortex,” Ph.D dissertation, Michigan University, Ann Arbor, MI.
Mørch, K. A. , 1980, “ On the Collapse of Cavity Clusters in Flow Cavitation,” Cavitation and Inhomogeneities in Underwater Acoustics (Springer Series in Electrophysics, Vol. 4), Springer, Berlin, pp. 95–100.
Mørch, K. A. , 1981, “ Cavity Cluster Dynamics and Cavitation Erosion,” Proceedings of the ASME Cavitation Polyphase Flow Forum, pp. 1–10.
Mørch, K. A. , 1982, “ Energy Considerations on the Collapse of Cavity Clusters,” Appl. Sci. Res., 38(1), pp. 313–321.
Hansson, I. , Kedrinskii, V. , and Mørch, K. A. , 1982, “ On the Dynamics of Cavity Clusters,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 15(9), p. 1725.
Reisman, G. , and Brennen, C. , 1996, “ Pressure Pulses Generated by Cloud Cavitation,” ASME Symposium on Cavitation and Gas-Liquid Flows in Fluid Machinery and Devices, San Diego, CA, FED Vol. 236, pp. 316–328.
Reisman, G. , Wang, Y.-C. , and Brennen, C. E. , 1998, “ Observations of Shock Waves in Cloud Cavitation,” J. Fluid Mech., 355, pp. 255–283.
Kjeldsen, M. , Arndt, R. E. , and Effertz, M. , 2000, “ Spectral Characteristics of Sheet/Cloud Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 122(3), pp. 481–487.
Dular, M. , and Bachert, R. , 2009, “ The Issue of Strouhal Number Definition in Cavitating Flow,” J. Mech. Eng., 55(11), pp. 666–674.
George, D. L. , Iyer, C. O. , and Ceccio, S. L. , 2000, “ Measurement of the Bubbly Flow beneath Partial Attached Cavities Using Electrical Impedance Probes,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 122(1), pp. 151–155.
Foeth, E.-J. , van Terwisga, T. , and van Doorne, C. , 2008, “ On the Collapse Structure of an Attached Cavity on a Three-Dimensional Hydrofoil,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 130(7), p. 071303.
De Lange, D. , and De Bruin, G. , 1997, “ Sheet Cavitation and Cloud Cavitation, Re-Entrant Jet and Three-Dimensionality,” Appl. Sci. Res., 58(1), pp. 91–114.
Dang, J. , and Kuiper, G. , 1999, “ Re-Entrant Jet Modeling of Partial Cavity Flow on Three-Dimensional Hydrofoils,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 121(4), pp. 781–787.
Laberteaux, K. , and Ceccio, S. , 2001, “ Partial Cavity Flows. Part 2. Cavities Forming on Test Objects With Spanwise Variation,” J. Fluid Mech., 431, pp. 43–63.
Kawanami, Y. , Kato, H. , and Yamaguchi, H. , 1998, “ Three-Dimensional Characteristics of the Cavities Formed on a Two-Dimensional Hydrofoil,” Third International Symposium on Cavitation, Grenoble, France, pp. 191–196.

## Figures

Fig. 1

Schematic of the closed-circuit water tunnel in Zhejiang University: (1) work section, (2) diffuser section, (3) connect to pressure regulation vessel, (4) elbow, (5) connect to degas vessel, (6) electric drive, (7) axial flow pump, (8) connect to degas vessel, (9) connect to pressure regulation vessel, (10) honeycomb, and (11) contraction section

Fig. 2

Exploded view of the test hydrofoil (NACA0015) with eight pressure transducers mounted on the surface

Fig. 3

Schematic of synchronous measurement and acquisition system. The system consists of two high-speed cameras, surface pressure transducers, two hydrophones, trigger, and acquisition system.

Fig. 4

Distribution of nondimensional cavity length (L/c), St, cavitation dominant frequency f, and St*. According to the cavity length and shedding dynamics, the attached cavitation on hydrofoil was divided into three types: type I, sheet cavitation; type II, partial cavity oscillation; and type III, transitional cavity oscillation. St number was calculated through the equation St=fc/v and the corresponding cavitation dominant frequency f was given in parentheses. The modified St* number was calculated through the equation St*=(fL/v1+σ).

Fig. 5

Amplitude spectrum of the surface pressure in partial cavity oscillation (corresponds to Fig. 9)

Fig. 6

Amplitude spectrum of the surface pressure in transitional cavity oscillation (corresponds to Fig. 15)

Fig. 7

Periodic oscillation process of partial cavity; σ= 1.36, α= 7.7 deg, σ/2α= 5.060, L/c= 0.570, St = 0.61, and shedding frequency = 42.42 Hz: (a) T0 ms, (b) T0 + 3 ms, (c) T0 + 6 ms, (d) T0 + 9 ms, (e) T0 + 12 ms, (f) T0 + 15 ms, (g) T0 + 18 ms, (h) T0 + 21 ms, and (i) T0 + 24 ms

Fig. 8

Schematic of the re-entrant jet flow in the closure region of an attached cavity (not drawn to scale)

Fig. 9

Surface pressure fluctuation in partial cavity oscillation (corresponds to Fig. 7)

Fig. 10

The mean value of surface pressure and the RMS value of the surface pressure fluctuation (the error bar), corresponding to Fig. 9

Fig. 11

Periodic oscillation process of transitional cavity; σ = 0.84, α = 7.7 deg, σ/2α = 3.125, L/c = 0.992, St = 0.3, and shedding frequency = 20.90 Hz. The dashed lines indicated the leading edges of side-entrant jets. The solid line showed the leading edge of middle-entrant jet. Dashed box A: the aft part of sheet cavitation. Dashed box B: the fore part of sheet cavitation. Dashed box C: the cavity sheared off by the combination effect of side-entrant jets and middle-entrant jet: (a) T1 ms, (b) T1 +3 ms, (c) T1 +6 ms, (d) T1 +9 ms, (e) T1 +12 ms, (f) T1+15 ms, (g) T1 +18 ms, (h) T1 +21 ms, (i) T1 +24 ms, (j) T1 +27 ms, (k) T1 +30 ms, (l) T1 +33 ms, (m) T1 +36 ms, (n) T1 +39 ms, (o) T1 +42 ms, and (p) T1 +45 ms.

Fig. 12

Schematic of the re-entrant jet propagation track in transitional cavity oscillation (corresponds to Fig. 11); lines A, B, C, and D indicated the leading edges of side-entrant jets and middle-entrant jet at different moments. A: T1 + 9 ms, B: T1+ 12 ms, C: T1+15 ms, D: T1+ 18 ms. The large dashed arrows represented the overall propagate direction of side-entrant jets, and the small arrows showed the local spreading direction at certain moment. The middle-entrant jet was presented in the figure with the large solid arrow.

Fig. 13

Microscopic view of the fore part of the cavitation shedding (corresponds to Fig. 11). The dashed box marked a typical generation process of tube-shaped cavity: (a) T1 + 23.0 ms, (b) T1 + 23.2 ms, (c) T1 + 23.4 ms, (d) T1 + 23.6 ms, (e) T1 + 23.8 ms, (f) T1 + 24.0 ms, (g) T1 + 24.2 ms, and (h) T1 + 24.4 ms.

Fig. 14

Enlarged view of the aft and fore parts of the cavitation shedding (corresponds to Fig. 11). Dashed box B showed the shedding of fore part of sheet cavitation: (a) T1 + 18.0 ms, (b) T1 + 19.2 ms, (c) T1 + 20.4 ms, (d) T1 + 21.6 ms, (e) T1 + 22.8 ms, (f) T1 + 24.0 ms, (g) T1 + 25.2 ms, and (h) T1 + 26.4 ms.

Fig. 15

Surface pressure fluctuation in transitional cavity oscillation (corresponds to Fig. 11). The circles showed twice pressure fluctuation caused by the two-stage shedding of transitional cavity.

Fig. 16

The mean value of the surface pressure and the RMS value of the surface pressure fluctuation (the error bar), corresponding to Fig. 15

Fig. 17

Surface pressure variance in the side-entrant jet propagation process (corresponds to Figs. 11 and 12). The arrows denoted surface pressure increasing when the side-entrant jet crossed over transducers.

## Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

### Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related Proceedings Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections