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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Flow Behavior in Radial Vane Disk Brake Rotors at Low Rotational Speeds

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael D. Atkins

School of Mechanical,
Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering,
University of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
e-mail: Michael.Atkins@wits.ac.za

Frank W. Kienhöfer

School of Mechanical,
Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering,
University of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
e-mail: Frank.Kienhofer@wits.ac.za

Tongbeum Kim

School of Mechanical,
Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering,
University of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
e-mail: Tong.Kim@wits.ac.za

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 5, 2018; final manuscript received January 2, 2019; published online January 30, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Timothy Lee.

J. Fluids Eng 141(8), 081105 (Jan 30, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1668; doi: 10.1115/1.4042470 History: Received October 05, 2018; Revised January 02, 2019

The flow behavior through the vented channel of a brake disk determines its thermal performance, viz. its resistance to brake fade, brake wear, thermal distortion, and thermal cracking. We present experimental results of the flow characteristics inside the vented channel of a radial vane brake rotor with a selected number of vanes (i.e., 18, 36, and 72) but constant porosity (ε ∼ 0.8) at low rotational speeds (i.e., 25 rpm ≤ N ≤ 400 rpm). Using bulk flow and velocity field mapping measurement techniques, we observed that increasing the number of vanes for a given rotational speed results in (i) the increase in the mass flow rate of the air pumped by the rotor, (ii) the reduction of inflow angle (β) becoming more closely aligned with the vanes, (iii) more uniformly distributed passage velocity profiles, and (iv) increased Rossby number. In addition, for a certain range of rotational speeds (i.e., 100 rpm ≤ N ≤ 400 rpm), we identified the biased development of streamwise secondary flow structures in the vented passages that only form on the inboard side of the rotor. This is due to the entry conditions where the incoming flow must transition sharply from the axial to the radial direction as air is drawn into the rotating channel. The biased secondary flow is likely to cause uneven cooling of the brake rotor, leading to thermal distortion. At lower rotational speeds (i.e., N < 100 rpm), the biased secondary flows transitions into a symmetric structure.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Conventional brake system showing brake disk, pads, and caliper [4]

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Fig. 2

Brake rotor configurations [4]: (a) solid disk, (b) radial vane rotor (disk), (c) curved vane rotor (disk), and (d) pin-finned rotor (disk)

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Fig. 3

Radial vane rotor: (a) photograph of a 18 vane brake rotor, (b) photograph of a 36 vane brake rotor, (c) photograph of a 72 vane brake rotor, and (d) schematic of the geometric parameters

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup of the rotating vane flow meter

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Fig. 5

Experimental setup of the PIV system illuminating the midspan plane of the rotating brake disk where (a) sealed chamber, (b) drive belt, (c) three-phase motor, (d) Nd:YAG laser, (e) seeding particles, (f) laser light sheet, (g) rotating brake disk, (h) measurement area, and (i) charge-coupled device (CCD) camera

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Fig. 6

The variation of mass flow rate (m˙) with rotational speed (N)

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Fig. 7

Raw PIV recordings in the midspan plane: (a) 18 radial vane rotor, (b) 36 radial vane rotor, and (c) 72 radial vane rotor

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Fig. 8

Particle image velocimetry flow image for the 18 vane rotor with streamlines derived from the relative velocity: (a) midspan plane and (b) end-view

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Fig. 9

Particle image velocimetry flow image for the 36 vane rotor with streamlines derived from the relative velocity: (a) midspan plane and (b) end-view

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Fig. 10

Particle image velocimetry flow image for the 72 vane rotor with streamlines derived from the relative velocity: (a) midspan plane and (b) end-view

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Fig. 11

Normalized radial velocity (Vradial/Utip) profile for the 18 vane rotor, at different rotational speeds (i.e., 25 rpm, 100 rpm, and 400 rpm): (a) at 0.25L, (b) at 0.5L, (c) at 0.75L, and (d) at 0.89L

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Fig. 12

Normalized radial velocity (Vradial/Utip) profile for the 36 vane rotor, at different rotational speeds (i.e., 25 rpm, 100 rpm, and 400 rpm): (a) at 0.25L, (b) at 0.5L, (c) at 0.75L, and (d) at 0.9L

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Fig. 13

Normalized radial velocity (Vradial/Utip) profile for the 72 vane rotor, at different rotational speeds (i.e., 25 rpm, 100 rpm, and 400 rpm): (a) at 0.25L, (b) at 0.5L, (c) at 0.75L, and (d) at 0.94L

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Fig. 14

Inflow variation: (a) schematic of the velocity triangle, which defines the inflow angle (β) and (b) the variation of the average inflow angle (β) with rotational speed for the different rotor configurations

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Fig. 15

Particle image velocimetry flow images showing the end-view of a vented passage with secondary flow structures: (a) 18, 36, and 72 vane rotors rotating at 100 rpm and (b) 18, 36, and 72 vane rotors rotating at 25 rpm

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Fig. 16

Schematic of the biased secondary flow behavior developing in the vented passage of a radial vane brake rotor where the inflow transitions from the axial to the radial direction

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