Sakamoto,
S., Murakami,
S., and Mochida,
A., 1993, “Numerical Study on Flow Past 2D Square Cylinder by Large Eddy Simulation,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 50, pp. 61–68.

Yang,
K.-S., and Ferziger,
J., 1993, “Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Obstacle Flow Using a Dynamic Subgrid-Scale Model,” AIAA J., 31, pp. 1406–1413.

Murakami,
S., and Mochida,
A., 1995, “On Turbulent Vortex Shedding Flow Past 2D Square Cylinder Predicted by CFD,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 54, p. 191.

Rodi,
W., Ferziger,
J., Breuer,
M., and Pourquié,
M., 1997, “Status of Large-Eddy Simulations: Results of a Workshop,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 119, pp. 248–262.

Lyn,
D. A., Einav,
S., Rodi,
W., and Park,
J. H., 1995, “A Laser-Doppler Velocimetry Study of the Ensemble-Averaged Characteristics of the Turbulent Near Wake of a Square Cylinder,” J. Fluid Mech., 304, pp. 285–319.

Voke, P. R., 1997, “Flow Past a Square Cylinder: Test Case LES2,” *Direct and Large Eddy Simulation II*, J. P. C. Challet, P. Voke, L. Kouser, eds., Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.

Rodi,
W., 1997, “Comparison of LES and RANS Calculations of the Flow Around Bluff Bodies,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 69–71, pp. 55–75.

Williamson,
C. H. K., 1996, “Vortex Dynamics in the Cylinder Wake,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 28, pp. 477–539.

Sohankar,
A., Norberg,
C., and Davidson,
L., 1999, “Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Flow Around a Square Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Numbers,” Phys. Fluids, 11, No. 2, pp. 288–306.

Smagorinsky,
J., 1963, “General Circulation Experiments with the Primitive Equations,” Mon. Weather Rev., 91, pp. 99–165.

Moin,
P., and Kim,
J., 1982, “Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Channel Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 118, pp. 341–377.

Germano,
M., Piomelli,
U., Moin,
P., and Cabot,
W., 1991, “A Dynamic Subgrid-Scale Eddy Viscosity Model,” Phys. Fluids A, 3, pp. 1760–1765.

Lilly,
D., 1992, “A Proposed Modification of the Germano Subgrid-Scale Closure Method,” Phys. Fluids A, 4, pp. 633–635.

Akselvoll, K., and Moin, P., 1995, Large eddy simulation of turbulent confined coannular jets and turbulent flow over a backward facing step. Report No. TF-63, Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University.

Davidson, L., 1997, “Large Eddy Simulation: A Dynamic One-Equation Subgrid Model for Three-Dimensional Recirculating Flow,” *11th International Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flow*, Grenoble, Vol. 3, pp. 26.1–26.6.

Ghosal,
S., Lund,
T., Moin,
P., and Akselvoll,
K., 1995, “A Dynamic Localization Model for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows,” J. Fluid Mech., 286, pp. 229–255.

Maskell, E. C., 1963, “A Theory of the Blockage Effects on Bluff Bodies and Stalled Wings in a Closed Wind Tunnel,” Reports and Memoranda 3400, Aeronautical Research Council (ARC).

Modi, V. J., and El-Sherbiny, S. E., 1971, “Effect of Wall Confinement on Aerodynamics of Stationary Circular Cylinders,” *3rd International Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures*, Saikon Shuppan Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Volume 2, pp. 365–376.

Okajima,
A., and Sugitani,
K., 1984, “Strouhal Number and Base Pressure Coefficient of a Rectangular Cylinder,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser. B, 50, pp. 2004–2012.

Igarashi,
T., 1984, “Characteristics of the Flow Around a Square Prism,” Bull. JSME, 27, pp. 1858–1865.

Norberg,
C., 1993, “Flow Around Rectangular Cylinders: Pressure Forces and Wake Frequencies,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 19, pp. 187–196.

Vickery,
B. J., 1966, “Fluctuating Lift and Drag on a Long Cylinder of Square Cross-Section in a Turbulent Stream,” J. Fluid Mech., 25, pp. 481–494.

Bearman,
P. W., and Obasaju,
E. D., 1982, “An Experimental Study of Pressure Fluctuations on Fixed and Oscillating Square-Section Cylinders,” J. Fluid Mech., 119, pp. 297–321.

Norberg,
C., 1994, “An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Around a Circular Cylinder: Influence of Aspect Ratio,” J. Fluid Mech., 258, pp. 287–316.

Luo,
S. C., Yazdani,
M. G., Chew,
Y. T., and Lee,
T. S., 1994, “Effects of Incidence and Afterbody Shape on Flow Past Bluff Cylinders,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 53, pp. 375–399.

West,
G. S., and Apelt,
C. J., 1982, “The Effects of Tunnel Blockage and Aspect Ratio on the Mean Flow Past a Circular Cylinder with Reynolds Numbers Between 10^{4} and 10^{5},” J. Fluid Mech., 114, pp. 361–377.

Igarashi,
T., 1985, “Characteristics of the Flow Around Rectangular Cylinders (The Case of the Angle of Attack 0 deg.),” Bull. JSME, 28, pp. 1690–1696.

Bearman,
P. W., 1967, “On Vortex Street Wakes,” J. Fluid Mech., 28, No. 4, pp. 625–641.

Lee,
B. E., 1975, “Some Effects of Turbulence Scale on the Mean Forces on a Bluff Body,” J. Ind. Aerodyn., 1, pp. 361–370.

McLean,
I., and Gartshore,
C., 1992, “Spanwise Correlations of Pressure on a Rigid Square Section Cylinder,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 41–44, pp. 779–808.

Sohankar, A., Norberg, C., and Davidson, L., 1999, Numerical Simulation of Flow Past a Square Cylinder, *FEDSM99-7172—3rd ASME/JSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference*, San Francisco, CA, July 18-23, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), pp. 1–6.

Allen, H. J., and Vincenti, W. G., 1944, Wall interference in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel, with consideration of the effect of compressibility, NACA Report No. 982, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, D.C.

Okajima,
A., 1982, “Strouhal Numbers of Rectangular Cylinders,” J. Fluid Mech., 123, pp. 379–398.

Cowdrey, C. F., 1963, A note on the use of end plates to prevent three-dimensional flow at the ends of bluff cylinders, Current Papers ARC C.P. 683, Aeronautical Research Council (ARC).

Stansby,
P. K., 1974, “The Effects of End Plates on the Base Pressure Coefficient of a Circular Cylinder,” Aeron J., 78, pp. 36–37.

Szepessy,
S., and Bearman,
P. W., 1992, “Aspect Ratio and End Plate Effects on Vortex Shedding From a Circular Cylinder,” J. Fluid Mech., 234, pp. 191–217.

Henderson,
R. D., 1997, “Nonlinear Dynamics and Pattern Formation in Turbulent Wake Transition,” J. Fluid Mech., 352, pp. 65–112.

Nakamura,
Y., and Ohya,
Y., 1984, “The Effects of Turbulence on the Mean Flow Past Two-Dimensional Rectangular Cylinders,” J. Fluid Mech., 149, pp. 255–273.

Cheng,
C. M., Lu,
P. C., and Chen,
R. H., 1992, “Wind Loads on Square Cylinder in Homogenous Turbulent Flows,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 41–44, pp. 739–749.

Schlichting, H., 1979, *Boundary-Layer Theory*, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

Bradshaw, P., 1971, *An Introduction to Turbulence and its Measurement*, Pergamon, New York.

Mittal,
R., and Balachandar,
S., 1995, “Effect of the Three-Dimensionality on Lift and Drag of Nominally Two-Dimensional Cylinders,” Phys. Fluids, 7, pp. 1841–1865.

Domaradzki,
J. A., 1997, “Backscatter Models for Large Eddy Simulations,” Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 9, pp. 75–83.

Sohankar, A., 1998, Numerical Study of Laminar, Transitional and Turbulent Flow Past Rectangular Cylinders. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.

Davidson, L., and Nielsen, P., 1998, in “A Study of Low-Reynolds Number Effects in Backward-Facing Step Flow Using Large Eddy Simulations,” *6th International Conference on Air Distributions in Rooms, ROOMVENT’98*, E. Mundt and T. Malmström, eds., Stockhom, Sweden, Vol. 1, pp. 125–132.

Krajnović, S., and Davidson, L., 1999, “Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flow Around a Surface Mounted Cube using a Dynamic One-Equation Subgrid Model,” *The First International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena*, S. Baneyee and J. K. Eaton, eds., Santa Barbara, Sept. 12–15.