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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Bubble Characteristics in a Developing Vertical Gas–Liquid Upflow Using a Conductivity Probe

[+] Author and Article Information
Junping Zhang, Norman Epstein, John R. Grace

Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2216 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4

Kokseng Lim

Fluidization Research Lab, CSIRO Minerals, Box 312, Clayton South, Victoria, 3169 Australia

J. Fluids Eng 122(1), 138-145 (Oct 12, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483250 History: Received July 30, 1997; Revised October 12, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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Figures

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Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus and conductivity probe
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Response of conductivity probe to a gas bubble in air-water system at Z=1.95 m,L=1.1 mm,Ul=0.018 m/s, and Ug=0.086 m/s (slug flow regime); estimate of uncertainty in voltage reading=±28 mV
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Air–water bubble column flow regime map for D=0.0826 m and Z=0.65 m (points and solid lines, this study) compared to regime transitions from literature (broken lines); uncertainty estimate of Ug at transition points=±7percent, uncertainty estimate of Ul at transition points=±4percent (* ) transition from discrete bubble flow or slug flow to dispersed bubble flow; (▪) transition from discrete or dispersed bubble flow to coalesced bubble flow; (▵) transition from coalesced bubble flow to slug flow; (•) transition flow slug flow to churn flow; (▴) transition from churn flow to bridging flow; (▾) transition from bridging flow to annular flow; (1A) bubble slug flow transition, Annunziato and Girardi 30; (2A) slug/churn flow transition, Annunziato and Girardi 30; (3A) churn/annular flow transition, Annunziato and Girardi 30; (1G) bubble/slug flow transition, Govier et al. 31; (2G) slug/froth flow transition, Govier et al. 31; (3G) froth/ripple flow transition, Govier et al. 31; (4G) ripple/film flow transition, Govier et al. 31; (1T) bubble/slug flow transition, Taitel et al. 22; (2T) slug/churn flow transition, Taitel et al. 22; (3T) churn/annular flow transition, Taitel et al. 22
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Linear relationship between bubble frequency and superficial gas velocity for the discrete (closed symbols) and dispersed (open symbols) bubble flow regimes: air–water system. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of f=±5 percent.
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Plot of local bubble frequency at axis of column versus superficial gas velocity showing variation of bubble frequency in slug flow and churn flow. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of f=±5 percent.
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Comparison of arith. avg. bubble chord length in discrete and dispersed bubble flow regimes for air–water system at Z=0.65 m. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of bubble chord length=±10 percent.
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Probability density distribution of bubble chord length in discrete and dispersed bubble flow regimes for air–water system. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of bubble chord length=±10 percent.
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Bubble chord length in coalesced bubble, slug and churn flow regimes for air–water system with Z=0.65 m and D=82.6 mm. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of bubble chord length=±10 percent.
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Probability density distribution of bubble chord length in the slug and churn flow regimes at Z=0.65 m and D=82.6 mm. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of bubble chord length=±10 percent.
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Average bubble velocity in discrete and dispersed flow at different superficial liquid velocities for air–water system at Z=0.65 m. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of bubble velocity and bubble chord length=±10 percent.
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Relationship between bubble travel length and average bubble chord length in the slug and churn flow regimes for air–water system at Z=0.65 m, D=82.6 mm, and Ug≈0.002–6 m/s. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of bubble velocity and bubble chord length=±10 percent.
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Relationship between average bubble velocity and average bubble chord length in slug and churn flow regimes for air–water system at Z=0.65 m and D=82.6 mm. Uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ug=±2 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of Ul=±1 percent; uncertainty estimate in measurement of bubble velocity and bubble chord length=±10 percent.

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