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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Investigating Three-Dimensional and Rotational Effects on Wind Turbine Blades by Means of a Quasi-3D Navier-Stokes Solver

[+] Author and Article Information
P. K. Chaviaropoulos

CRES-Center for Renewable Energy Sources, 19th km Marathonos Ave., 190 09 Pikermi Attiki, Greece

M. O. L. Hansen

Department of Energy Engineering, Fluid Mechanics Section, Technical University of Denmark, bldg. 404, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark

J. Fluids Eng 122(2), 330-336 (Feb 22, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483261 History: Received October 03, 1997; Revised February 22, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Himmelskamp, H., 1945, “Profile Investigation on a Rotating Airscrew,” Technical Report Ph.D. Dissertation, Gottingen, Germany.
Ronsten, G., 1991, “Static Pressure Measurements on a Rotating and a Non- Rotating 2.375 m Wind Turbine Blade—Comparison with 2-D Calculations,” Proc. of the EWEC ’91 Conference, Amsterdam, pp. 214–220.
Bruining, A., Van Bussel, G. J. W., Corten, G. P., and Timmer, W. A., 1993, “Pressure Distribution from a Wind Turbine Blade; Field Measurements Compared to 2-Dimensional Wind Tunnel Data,” Technical report IW-93065R, Delft Univ. of Technology, Institute of Wind Energy.
Hansen, M. O. L., Soerensen, J. N., Michelsen, J. A., and Soerensen, N. N, 1997, “A Global Navier-Stokes Rotor Prediction Model,” 35th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, Reno, AIAA paper 97-0970.
Snel, H., Houwink, R., and Piers, W. J., 1992, “Sectional Prediction of 3-D Effects for Separated Flow on Rotating Blades,” Eighteenth European Rotorcraft Forum, Avignon, France,
Snel, H., Houwink, R., Bosschers, J., Piers, W. J., and Bruining, A., 1993, “Sectional Prediction of 3-D Effects for Stalled Flows on Rotating Blades and Comparison with Measurements,” Proc. of the ECWEC ’93 Conference, Travemunde, Germany, pp. 395–399.
Soerensen, D. N., and Soerensen, J. N., 1995, “Quasi 3-Dimensional Model for Rotating Airfoil” 13th AIAA Applied Aerod Conf., San Diego, CA, AIAA 95-1916.
Shen,  W. Z., and Soerensen,  J. N., 1999, “Quasi-3D Navier-Stokes Model for Rotating Airfoil,” J. Comput. Phys., 150, pp. 518–548.
Wilcox, D. C., 1993, Turbulence Modelling for CFD, DCW Industries Inc., La Canada, CA, ISBN 0-9636051-0-0.
Bird, R. B., Steward, W. E., and Lightfoot, E. N., Transport Phenomena, Wiley, LCCCN: 60-11717, pp. 82–92.
Vavra, M. H., 1974, Aero-Thermodynamics and Flow in Turbomachines, R. E. Krieger Publ. ISBN 0-88275-189-1, pp. 107–132.
Hansen, M. O. L., Soerensen, N. N., Soerensen, J. N., and Michelsen, J. A., 1997, “Extraction of Lift, Drag and Angle of Attack from Computed 3-D Viscous Flow around a Rotating Blade,” European Wind Energy Conference, Dublin, pp. 499–502.
Menter, F. R., 1993, “Zonal Two Equation k-ω Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows,” AIAA paper 93-2906.
Chaviaropoulos, P., 1994, “A Matrix-Free Pressure Solver for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations Application to 2-D Flows,” Proceedings of ECCOMAS Conf., Stuttgart, Germany.
Abbott, I. H., and Doenhoff, A. E., 1959, Theory of Wing Sections, Dover Publications,
Petersen, H., 1995, “Powerkurveanalyser for danske og udenlandske vindmoeller” (in Danish), Energistyrelsen J. No. 1. 51171/95-0007.

Figures

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Velocity triangle at the (z,Θ) plane
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Influence of the c/r ratio on (a) the pressure and (b) the skin friction coefficient of the NACA 0015 airfoil in laminar flow. Re=400, α=15 degrees, twist=0 degrees.
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Laminar flow around NACA 0015, Re=400, α=15 degrees, twist=0 degrees. Contour plots of the in-plane (W2D) velocity magnitude, (a) 2-D flow, (b) c/r=0.3. Contour step=0.1.
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Laminar flow around NACA 0015, Re=400, α=15 degrees, twist=0 degrees. Contour plot of the radial velocity component Wr. Contour step=0.1.
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2-D and quasi-3D load coefficients versus angle of attack, (a) CI, (b) Cd, and (c) Cm. NACA 63-2-15, Re=2×106, fully turbulent flow, twist=0 degrees.
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Influence of the c/r ratio on (a) the pressure and (b) the skin friction coefficients. NACA 63-2-15, Re=2 mil, α=15 degrees, fully turbulent flow. Twist=0 degrees.
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Measured and computed electrical power for a Bonus 300 Combi wind turbine using “pure” 2-D airfoil data and using the same data corrected for 3-D rotational effects, Eqs. (18) and (19)

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