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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Use of Cavitating Jets to Oxidize Organic Compounds in Water

[+] Author and Article Information
K. M. Kalumuck, G. L. Chahine

DYNAFLOW, Inc., 7210 Pindeil School Rd., Fulton, MD 20759 e-mail: info@dynaflow-inc.com

J. Fluids Eng 122(3), 465-470 (May 03, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286993 History: Received October 14, 1999; Revised May 03, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Brown, B., and Goodman, J. E., 1965, High Intensity Ultrasonics, Van Nostrand, Inc., Princeton, NJ.
Suslick, K. S., ed., 1988, Ultrasound, Its Chemical, Physical, and Biological Effects, VCH, New York.
Suslick,  K. S., 1989, “Sonochemistry,” Science, 247, pp. 1439–1445.
Neppiras,  E. A., 1980, “Acoustic Cavitation,” Phys. Rep., 61, pp. 159–251.
Hua,  I., Hochemer,  R., and Hoffman,  M., 1995, “Sonochemical Degradation of p-Nitrophenol in a Parallel Plate Near Field Acoustic Processor,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, pp. 2790–2796.
Skov, E., Pisani, J., and Beale, S., 1997, “Cavitation Induced Hydroxyl Radical Formation,” American Institute of Chemical Engineering National Meeting, Houston, TX.
Gong,  C., and Hart,  D. P., 1998, “Ultrasound Induced Cavitation and Sonochemical Yields,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 104, No. 4, pp. 2675–2682.
Suslick,  K. S., Cline,  R. E., and Hammerton,  D. A., 1986, “The Sonochemical Hot Spot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 108, p. 5641.
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Margulis,  M. A., 1990, “The Nature of Sonochemical Reactions and Sonoluminescence,” Adv. Sonochem., 1, pp. 39–81.
LePoint,  T., and Mullie,  F., 1994, “What Exactly is Cavitation Chemistry?” Ultrason. Sonochem., 1, pp. 13–22.
Hua,  I., Hochemer,  R., and Hoffman,  M., 1995, “Sonolytic Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Acetate: The Role of Supercritical Water,” J. Phys. Chem., 99, pp. 2335–2342.
Kotronarou,  A., Mills,  G., and Hoffman,  M., 1991, “Ultrasonic Irradiation of p-Nitrophenol in Aqueous Solution,” J. Phys. Chem., 95, pp. 3630–3638.
Kotronarou,  A., Mills,  G., and Hoffman,  M., 1992, “Decomposition of Parathion in Aqueous Solution by Ultrasonic Irradiation,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 26, pp. 1460–1462.
Cheung,  H. M., Bhatnagar,  A., and Jansen,  G., 1991, “Sonochemical Destruction of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Dilute Aqueous Solution,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 25, p. 1510.
Hua,  I., and Hoffman,  M., 1996, “Kinetics and Mechanism of the Sonolytic Degradation of CCl4: Intermediates and Byproducts,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, pp. 864–871.
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1994, “CAV-OX Cavitation Oxidation Process Magnum Water Technology, Inc. Applications Analysis Report,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA/540/AR-93/520.
Young, F. R., 1989, Cavitation, McGraw-Hill, London.
Chahine,  G. L., and Duraiswami,  R., 1994, “Boundary Element Method for Calculating 2D and 3D Underwater Explosion Bubble Behavior in Free Water and Near Structures,” U. S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Technical Report NSWCDD/TR-93/44.
Chahine, G. L., 1991, “Dynamics of the Interaction of Non-Spherical Cavities,” Mathematical Approaches in Hydrodynamics, Miloh, T., ed., SIAM, Philadelphia.
Chahine,  G. L. and Duraiswami,  R., 1992, “Dynamical Interactions in a Bubble Cloud,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 114, No. 4, pp. 680–686.
Chahine, G. L., and Johnson, V. E., Jr., 1985, “Mechanics and Applications of Self-Resonating Cavitating Jets,” International Symposium on Jets and Cavities, ASME, WAM, Miami, FL.
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Johnson, V. E., Kohn, R. E., Tiruvengadam, A., and Conn, A. F., 1972, “Tunneling, Fracturing, Drilling, and Mining with High Speed Water Jets Utilizing Cavitation Damage,” Proceedings, 1st International Symposium on Jet Cutting Technology, Coventry, U.K.
Chahine, G. L., Kalumuck, K. M., and Frederick, G. S., 1995, “Cavitating Water Jets for Deep Hole Drilling in Hard Rock,” Proceedings, 8th American Water Jet Conference, Houston, TX, Vol. 2, pp. 765–778.
Kalumuck,  K. M., Chahine,  G. L., Frederick,  G. S., Aley,  P. D., Brittain,  W. L., and Gumerov,  N. A., 1997, “Oxidation of Organic Compounds in Water with Cavitating Jets,” DYNAFLOW, INC. Technical Report 97002-1nsf.
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Figures

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Pressure field associated with nonspherical bubble collapse. Taken from Chahine and Duraiswami 19
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Sketch of jet loop capable of 56 gpm at 60 psi
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Sketch of ultrasonic experimental setup
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Ultrasonic sonication of PNP at pH=3.5. Top: concentration versus time. Bottom: oxidation efficiency.
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Cavitating jet oxidation of PNP: pH=3.8, T=107°F, ambient pressure=20 psia, pressure entering nozzles =75 psia, flow rate=57 gpm, C0=8 ppm. Top: time variation of the ratio of PNP concentration to its initial value. Bottom: oxidation efficiency.
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Influence of temperature on cavitation effects exhibiting a region of maximum influence. (a) Jet oxidation efficiency of PNP at 4, 5, and 6 hours of operation; pH=3.8, ambient pressure=21 psia, pressure entering nozzles=70 psi. (b) Erosion of aluminum as a function of temperature for various liquids; taken from Brown and Goodman 1.
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Influence of pH on jet oxidation efficiency of PNP: T=107°F, ambient pressure=20 psia, pressure entering nozzles=75 psia
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Influence of cavitation number, sigma, on jet oxidation of PNP: pH=3.8, T=107°F

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