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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Effects of Air Entrainment on the Ability of Air Vessels in the Pressure Surge Suppressions

[+] Author and Article Information
T. S. Lee

Mechanical and Production Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 e-mail: mpeleets@nus.edu.sg

J. Fluids Eng 122(3), 499-504 (Mar 10, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286992 History: Received April 08, 1999; Revised March 10, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Clarke, D. S., 1985, “Surge Suppression—A Warning,” Proceedings of the International Conference on the Hydraulics of Pumping Stations, Manchester, England, 17-19 Sept., pp. 39–54.
Graze, H. R., and Horlacher, H. B., 1986, “Design Charts for Throttle (By-Pass) Air Chamber,” 5th Int. Conference on Pressure Surges, Hannover, Germany, 22–24 Sept., pp. 309–322.
Martin, C. S., 1972, “Method of Characteristics Applied to Calculation of Surge Tank Oscillations,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Pressure Surges, University of Kent, Canterbury, England, 6–8 Sept., pp. E1-1 to E1-12.
Fok,  A. T. K., 1978, “Design Charts for Air Chamber on Pump Pipe Lines,” J. Hydraul. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., HY9, Sept., pp. 1289–1302.
Evans,  W. E., and Crawford,  C. C., 1954, “Design Charts for Air Chambers and Pump Lines,” Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 119, pp. 1025–1045.
Fox, J. A., 1984, Hydraulic Analysis of Unsteady Flow In Pipe Network, Macmillan Press, London.
Wylie, E. B., Streeter, V. L., and Suo, L., 1993, Fluid Transients in Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Lee, T. S., and Cheong, H. F., 1998, “Tanjong Rhu Pumping Station—Site Measurement and Analysis of Surge in Pumping Main,” Ebara Engineering Singapore Pte Ltd., Singapore, July.
Thorley, A. R. D., and Lastowiecki, P., 1985, “Air Vessel Design for Rising Mains,” Proceedings of the International Conference on the Hydraulics of Pumping Stations, Manchester, England, 17–19 Sept., pp. 89–98.
Allievi,  L., 1937, “Air Chamber for Discharge Lines,” Trans. ASME, 59, pp. 651–659.
Angus,  R. W., 1937, “Air Chambers and Air Valves in Relation to Water Hammer,” Trans. ASME, 59, pp. 661–668.
Lee,  T. S., and Pejovic,  S., 1996, “Air influence on similarity of hydraulic transients and vibrations,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 118, pp. 706–709.
Pearsall,  I. S., 1965/66, “The Velocity of Water Hammer Waves,” Symposium on Surges in Pipelines, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Vol. 180, Part 3E, pp. 12–20.
Kranenburg,  C., 1974, “Gas release during transient cavitation in pipes,” J. Hydraul. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 100, pp. 1383–1398.
Provoost, G. A., 1976, “Investigation into Cavitation in a Prototype Pipeline caused by Waterhammer,” Proc. Second Int. Conf. on Pressure Surges, Bedford, England, BHRA, Sept., pp. 35–43.
Chaudhry,  M. H., Bhallamudi,  S. M., Martin,  C. S., and Naghash,  M., 1990, “Analysis of Transient Pressures in Bubbly, Homogeneous, Gas-Liquid Mixtures,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 112, pp. 225–231.
Jonsson, L., 1985, “Maximum Transient Pressures in a Conduit with CheckValve and Air Entrainment,” International Conference on the Hydraulics of Pumping Stations, The University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) & BHRA—The Fluid Engineering Centre, England. 17–19 Sept., pp. 55–76.
Whiteman,  K. J., and Pearsall,  I. S., 1959, “Reflux Valve and Surge Tests at Kingston Pumping Station,” Brit. Hydromech. Res. Assoc./National Engineering Laboratory Joint Report No. 1, Apr.
Whiteman,  K. J., and Pearsall,  I. S., 1962, “Reflux Valve and Surge Tests at a Station,” Fluid Handling, XIII, Sept. and Oct., pp. 248–250XIII and 282–286.
Dawson,,  P. A., and Fox,  J. A., 1983, “Surge Analysis and Suppression Techniques for a Water Supply Scheme—A Case Study,” Trans. Inst. M. C., 5, No.4, pp. 134–142.
Falconer, R. H., Banks, W., and Ellis, J., 1983, “Surge Pressures at Riding Mill Pumping Station: Actual Values and Theoretical Predictions,” 4th International Conference on Pressure Surges, University of Bath, England. Sept. 21–23, pp. 427–445.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Comparison with field measurements (air vessel isolated)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison with field measurements (air vessel activated)
Grahic Jump Location
Effects of air entrainment on resident water volume in the tank. Immediate downstream of check valve (A):    . At the peak location of pipeline profile (C):–.
Grahic Jump Location
Effects of air entrainment on local wave speeds. Immediate downstream of check valve (A):    . At the peak location of pipeline profile (C):–.
Grahic Jump Location
Effects of air entrainment on pressure transients. Immediate downstream of check valve (A):    . At the peak location of pipeline profile (C):–.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic model and computational characteristic grid of horizontal air vessel at location B
Grahic Jump Location
Horizontal air vessel at location B

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