Rough Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers in Shallow Open Channel Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
M. F. Tachie, D. J. Bergstrom

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 5A9

R. Balachandar

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 5A9

J. Fluids Eng 122(3), 533-541 (Feb 14, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1287267 History: Received March 23, 1999; Revised February 14, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Patel,  V. C., 1998, “Perspective: Flow at High Reynolds Number and over Rough Surfaces—Achilles Heel of CFD,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 120, pp. 434–444.
Nikuradse, J., 1933, Stromungsgesetze in rauhen Rohren, VDI Forschungsheft No. 361.
Tani,  I., and Motohashi,  T., 1985, “Non-Equilibrium Behavior of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows,” Proc. Jpn. Acad., B61, pp. 333–340.
Prandtl, L., and Schlichting, H., 1934, das Wiederstandagesetz rouher Platten, Werft Reedere Hafen, 15 , pp. 1–4.
Millikan, C. B., 1938, “A Critical Discussion of Turbulent Flows in Channels and Circular Tubes,” Proc. 5th Int. Cong. Appl. Mech., Cambridge, pp. 386–392.
Hama,  F. R., 1954, “Boundary Layer Characteristics for Smooth and Rough Surfaces,” Trans. Soc. Naval Archit. Mar. Eng., 62, 333–358.
Clauser,  F. H., 1954, “Turbulent Boundary Layers in Adverse Pressure Gradients,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 21, pp. 91–108
Furuya,  Y., and Fujita,  H., 1967, “Turbulent Boundary Layers on a Wire-Screen Roughness,” Bull. JSME, 10, pp. 77–86
Perry,  A. E., and Abell,  C. J., 1977, “Asymptotic Similarity of Turbulence Structures in Smooth- and Rough-Walled Pipes,” J. Fluid Mech., 79, pp. 785–799
Bandyopadhyay,  P. R., 1987, “Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers in the Transition Regime,” J. Fluid Mech., 180, pp. 231–266.
Perry,  A. E., Lim,  K. L., and Henbest,  S. M., 1987, “An Experimental Study of the Turbulence Structure in Smooth- and Rough-Wall Boundary Layers,” J. Fluid Mech., 177, pp. 437–466.
Raupach,  M. R., Antonia,  R. A., and Rajagopalan,  S., 1991, “Rough Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers,” Appl. Mech. Rev., 44, pp. 1–25.
Nezu,  I., and Rodi,  W., 1986, “Open-Channel Flow Measurements with a Laser Doppler Anemometer,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 112, No. 5, pp. 335–355.
Xinyu,  L., Zengnan,  D., and Changzhi,  C., 1995, “Turbulent Flow in Smooth-Wall Open Channels with Different Slopes,” J. Hydraul. Res., 33, No. 5, pp. 333–347.
Coles,  D. E., 1956, “The law of the Wake in the Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 1, pp. 191–226.
Coles, D. E., 1987, “Coherent Structure in Turbulent Boundary Layers,” Perspectives in Turbulence Studies, pp. 93–114, Springer-Verlag.
Osaka,  H., Kameda,  T., and Mochizuki,  S., 1998, “Re-Examination of the Reynolds-Number-Effect on the Mean Flow Quantities in a Smooth Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer,” JSME Int. J., Ser. B, 41, No. 1, pp. 123–129.
Tani, I., 1987, “Turbulent Boundary Layer Development over Rough Surfaces,” Perspectives in Turbulence Studies, Meier H. U., and Bradshaw, P., eds., Springer-Verlag, pp. 223–249.
Perry,  A. E., Schofield,  W. H., and Joubert,  P. N., 1969, “Rough Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers,” J. Fluid Mech., 37, pp. 383–413.
Townsend, A. A., 1976, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, Cambridge University Press.
Krogstad,  P. A., Antonia,  R. A., and Browne,  L. W. B., 1992, “Comparison between Rough- and Smooth-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers,” J. Fluid Mech., 245, pp. 599–617.
Osaka, H., and Mochizuki, S., 1988, “Coherent Structure of a d-type Rough Wall Boundary Layer,” Transport Phenomena in Turbulent Flows: Theory Experiment and Numerical Simulation, Hirata, M., and Kasagi, N., eds., pp. 199–211.
Young, S., and Bergstrom, D. J., 1997, “Turbulence Measurements in a Rough Wall Boundary Layer,” Proceedings of Eleventh Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, Grenoble, Sept. 8–10, 14–18.
Mills,  A. F., and Hang,  X., 1983, “On the Skin Friction Coefficient for a Fully Rough Flat Plate,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 105, pp. 364–365.
Bradshaw, P., 1978, Topics in Applied Physics, Turbulence, Bradshaw, P., ed., Vol. 12, 2nd ed., New York, Springer-Verlag.
Hancock,  P. E., and Bradshaw,  P., 1989, “Turbulence Structure of a Boundary Layer Beneath a Turbulent Freestream,” J. Fluid Mech., 205, pp. 45–76.
Thole,  K. A., and Bogard,  D. G., 1996, “High Freestream Turbulence Effects on Turbulent Boundary Layers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 118, pp. 276–284.
Blair,  M. F., 1983, “Influence of Free-Stream Turbulence on Turbulent Boundary Layer Heat Transfer and Mean Profile Development: Part II Analysis and Results,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105, pp. 41–47.
Hancock,  P. E., and Bradshaw,  P., 1983, “Effect of Free-Stream Turbulence on Turbulent Boundary Layers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 105, pp. 284–289.
Balachandar,  R., and Ramachandran,  S., 1999, “Turbulent Boundary Layers in Low Reynolds Number Shallow Open Channel Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 121, No. 3, pp. 684–689.
Bradshaw, P., 1987, “Wall Flows,” Turbulent Shear Flows 5, Durst, F., Launder, B. E., Lumley, J. L., Schmidt, F. W., and Whitelaw, J. H., eds., pp. 171–175.
Finley,  P. J., Phoe,  Khoo Chong, and Poh,  Chin Jeck, 1966, “Velocity Measurements in a Thin Turbulent Wake Layer,” La Houille Blanche, 21, pp. 713–721.
Granville,  P. S., 1976, “A Modified Law of the Wake for Turbulent Shear Layers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 98, pp. 578–580.
Press, W. H., Flannery, B. P. Teukolsky, S. A., and Vetterling, W. T., 1987, Numerical Recipes, Cambridge University Press.
Kirkgoz,  M. S., and Ardichoglu,  M., 1997, “Velocity Profiles of Developing and Developed Open Channel Flow,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 123, No. 12, pp. 1099–1105.
Spalart,  P. R., 1988, “Direct Numerical Simulation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Up to Rθ=1410,” J. Fluid Mech., 187, pp. 61–69.
Hoffmann,  J. A., and Mohammadi,  K., 1991, “Velocity Profiles for Turbulent Boundary Layers Under Freestream Turbulence,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 113, pp. 399–404.
Cardoso,  A. H., Graf,  W. H., and Gust,  G., 1989, “Uniform Flow in a Smooth Open Channel,” J. Hydraul. Res., 27, No. 5, pp. 603–616.
Dvorok,  F. A., 1969, “Calculation of Turbulent Boundary Layers on Rough Surfaces in Pressure Gradients,” AIAA J., 7, pp. 1752–1759.
Schultz-Grunow, 1941, “New Frictional Resistance Law for Smooth Plates,” NACA TM 986.
Smith, D. W., and Walter, J. H., 1959, “Skin-Friction Measurement in Incompressible Flow,” NACA TR-R 26.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of typical velocity profile in an open channel
Grahic Jump Location
Types of rough surfaces used: (a) perforated plate (PF), (b) wire mesh (WM)
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of mean velocity in outer coordinates for rough and smooth surfaces (uncertainty in U/Ue:±2 percent,y/δ:±4 percent)
Grahic Jump Location
Determination of Π and Uτ: Fit to Eq. (4) (uncertainty in U+:±4 percent for smooth surface and ±6 percent for rough surfaces, y/δ:±4 percent)
Grahic Jump Location
Determination of log-law constant, κ (uncertainty in y+dU+/dy+:±6 percent)
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Velocity defect distribution for smooth wall: present and previous data. (b) Velocity defect distribution for smooth and rough surfaces: solid line is a fit to Hama profile (Π=0.55)
Grahic Jump Location
Velocity distribution in inner coordinates (uncertainty in y+:±4 percent)
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of skin friction coefficient with Reθ for smooth and rough surfaces (uncertainty in Cf:±6 percent for smooth surface and ±12 percent for rough surfaces, Reθ:±5 percent)
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of shape factor (H) with skin friction coefficient (Cf) for smooth and rough surfaces at different freestream turbulence values (uncertainty in H:±4 percent)
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of turbulence intensity on smooth surfaces at various freestream turbulence levels (uncertainty in urms+:±5 percent,y/δ:±5 percent)
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of turbulence intensity for (a) smooth and (b) rough surfaces (uncertainty in urms+:±5 percent for smooth surface and ±8 percent for rough surfaces)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In