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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Mechanics of the Flow in the Small and Middle Human Airways

[+] Author and Article Information
Ashraf Farag

Delphi Thermal Systems, A&E Building 6, 200 Upper Mountain Road, Lockport, NY 14094e-mail: faragaa@hotmail.com

Jeffery Hammersley, Dan Olson

Center of Environmental Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43699

Terry Ng

MIME Department, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606e-mail: tng@top.eng.utoledo.edu

J. Fluids Eng 122(3), 576-584 (May 03, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1287724 History: Received August 10, 1999; Revised May 03, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Dubois, A. B. 1964, “Resistance to Breathing,” Handbook of Physiology, Sec. 3, Respiration, Vol. 1, Fenn W. O., and Rahn, H., eds., Washington D. C., Am. Physiol. Soc. pp. 451–452.
West J. B., 1966, “Regional Differences in Blood and Ventilation in the Lung,” Advances in Respiratory Physiology, Caro, C. G., ed., London.
West,  J. B., and Hugh-Jones,  P., 1959, “Patterns of Gas Flow in the Upper Bronchial Tree,” J. Appl. Physiol., 14, pp. 753–759.
Schroter,  R. C., and Sudlow,  M. F., 1969, “Flow Patterns In Models of The Human Bronchial Airways,” Respir. Physiol., 7, pp. 341–355.
Schreck, R. M., and Mockros, L. F. 1970, “Fluid Dynamics in the Upper Pulmonary Airways,” AIAA 3rd Fluid and Plasma Dynamics Conference, Los Angeles, CA.
West,  J. B., 1960, “The Measurements of Bronchial Air Flow,” J. Appl. Physiol., 15, pp. 976–978.
Olson, D. E. 1971, “Fluid Mechanics Relevant to Respiration Flow Within Curved or Elliptical Tubes and Bifurcation Systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College London, Dec.
Pedley, T. J., Schrter, R. C., and Sudlow, M. F., 1977, “Review: Gas Flow and Mixing in the Airways,” Bioengineering Aspects of the Lung, West, J. B., ed., Marcel Dekker, New York.
Chang,  H. K., and El-Masry,  A. Osama, 1982, “A Model Study of Flow Dynamics in Human Central Airways Part I: Axial Profiles,” Respir. Physiol., 49, pp. 75–95.
Isabey,  D., and Chang,  H. K., 1982, “A Model Study of Flow Dynamics in Human Central Airways Part I: Secondary Flow Profiles,” Respir. Physiol., 49, pp. 97–113.
Zhao,  Y., and Baruch,  L. B., 1994, “Steady Inspiratory Flow in a Model Symmetric Bifurcation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 116, pp. 488–496.
Zhao,  Y., and Baruch,  L. B., 1994, “Steady Expiratory Flow in a Model Symmetric Bifurcation” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 116, pp. 318–323.
Horsfield,  K., Dart,  G., and Olson,  E. D., 1971, “Models of Human Bronchial Tree,” J. Appl. Phys., 31, No. 2.
Hammersley,  R. J., and Olson,  E. D., 1992, “Physical Models of the Smaller Pulmonary Airways,” J. Appl. Physiol., 72, No. 6, pp. 2402–2414.
Farag, Ashraf, 1988, “Fluid Mechanics of Symmetric and Asymmetric Bifurcation Models Typical to Middle and Small Human Airways,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Toledo, Ohio, Apr.
Sobey,  J. I., 1976, “Inviscid Secondary Motions in a Tube of Slowly Varying Ellipticity,” J. Fluid Mech., 73, pp. 621–639.
Agrawal,  Y., Talbot,  L., and Gong,  K., 1978, “Laser Anemometer Study of Flow Development in Curved Circular Pipes,” J. Fluid Mech., 85, pp. 497–518.
Olson,  D. E., and Synder,  B., 1985, “The Upstream Scale of Flow Development in Curved Circular Pipes,” J. Fluid Mech., 150, pp. 139–158.
Synder,  B., and Olson,  E. D., 1989, “Flow Development in a Model Airway Bronchus,” J. Fluid Mech., 207, pp. 379–392.

Figures

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(a) Symmetrical model configuration; (b) (i) measurement stations and (ii) velocity components
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Downstream development of the primary velocity in the plane of bifurcation at Re=1500; CS is the carinal side and IC is the inner of curvature
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Secondary flow at the inlet to the model (l/d=−3.4) and first measuring location (l/d=−1.61); CS is the carinal side and IC is the inner of curvature
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Secondary velocity components in the normal plane and plane of bifurcation at different axial locations from the flow divider (l/d=0.0) at Re=1500
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Downstream development of primary velocity in the normal plane at different axial locations (l/d) at Re=1500; CS is the carinal side and IC is the inner of curvature
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Secondary velocity components in the transition zone at two different axial locations, Re=1500; CS is the carinal side and IC is the inner of curvature
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Dimensionless wall axial velocity gradients at different downstream locations (l/d) at Re=1500
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The downstream evolution of the transverse shifts in the axial velocity, expressed as the first moment (X/a), Re=1500
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Development of the mean axial vorticity compared to the curved tube: (a) in central core; (b) on maximal circulation path; (c) in the boundary layer

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