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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Discharge Coefficients of Critical Venturi Nozzles for CO2 and SF6

[+] Author and Article Information
Shin-ichi Nakao, Masaki Takamoto

Flow Measurement Section, National Research Laboratory of Metrology, 1-4, Umezono-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

J. Fluids Eng 122(4), 730-734 (Aug 17, 2000) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1319500 History: Received January 10, 2000; Revised August 17, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Nakao,  S., and Takamoto,  M., 1999, “Development of the Calibration Facility for Small Mass Flow rates of Gases and the Sonic Venturi Nozzle Transfer Standard,” JSME, Series B, 42, pp. 667–673.
Ishibashi, M., Takamoto, M., and Nakao, Y., 1994, “Precise Calibration of Critical Nozzles of Various Shapes at the Reynolds Number of 0.8−2.5×105,” FLOMEKO’94, Glasgow, Session 6.
Geropp, D., 1971, “Laminare Grenzschichten in ebenen und rotationssymmetrischen Lavalduesen,” Deutsche Luft und Raumfahrt Forschungsbericht (in Germany).
Ishibashi, M. and Takamoto, M., 1997, “Very Accurate Analytical Calculation of the Discharge Coefficients of Critical Venturi Nozzles with Laminar Boundary Layer,” Proceedings of FLUCOME, Japan.
Hall,  I. M., 1962, “Transonic Flow in Two Dimensional and Axially Symmetric Nozzles,” Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math., 15, pp. 487–508.
Nakao, S., Hirayama, T., Yokoi, Y., and Takamoto, M., 1997, “Effects of Thermalphysical Properties of Gases on the Discharge Coefficients of the Sonic Venturi Nozzle,” Proc. 1997 ASME FED Summer Meeting, Vancouver, Canada.
International Standard ISO 9300, 1990, “Measurement of gas flow by means of critical flow Venturi nozzles,” p. 8.
Tang,  S. P., and Fenn,  J. B., 1978, “Experimental Determination of the Discharge Coefficients for Critical Flow Through as Axisymmetric Nozzle,” AIAA J., 16, pp. 41–46.
JSME Data Book, 1986, Thermophysical Properties, edited by Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (in Japanese).
Johnson,  R. C., 1964, “Calculations of Real-Gas Effects in Flow Through Critical-Flow Nozzles,” ASME J. Basic Eng., Series D, 86, Sept., pp. 519–526.
Levine, R. D., and Bernstein, R. B., 1974, Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Oxford University Press (1997: translated in Japanese).
Simpson,  C. J. S. M., Bridgman,  K. B., and Chandler,  T. R. D., 1968, “Shock-Tube Study of Vibrational Relaxation in Carbon Dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys., 49, pp. 513–522.
Liepmann, H. W., and Roshko, A, 1960, Elements of Gasdynamics, Wiley, New York (1983: translated in Japanese).
Yokogawa, A., and Nishioka, M., 1999, “Numerical Studies on the Sonic Nozzle for Mass Flow Calibration,” Ms. thesis, Univ. of Osaka-prefecture (in Japanese).
Johnson,  A., Wright,  J., Nakao,  S., Merkle,  C. L., and Moldover,  M. R., 1999, “The Effect of Vibrational Relaxation on the Discharge Coefficient of Critical Flow Ventur,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 11, pp. 315–327.
Back,  L. H., 1970, “Acceleration and Cooling Effects in Laminar Boundary layers-Subsonic, Transonic, and Supersonic Speeds,” AIAA J., 8, pp. 794–802.

Figures

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Schematic diagram of the ISO type toroidal throat Venturi nozzle and their throat diameters
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The variations of the discharge coefficients versus the theoretical Reynolds number (×: from Nakao et al. 6)
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The linear relation between the discharge coefficient and the inverse of the square root of the theoretical Reynolds number
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The variation of “a” with specific heat ratio (×: from Nakao et al. 6)
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The variation of “b” with specific heat ratio (×: from Nakao et al. 6)
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The discharge coefficients of the four nozzles for CO2 versus the inverse of the square root of the theoretical Reynolds number
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The variation of “a” versus the throat diameter for CO2
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The comparison of the measured discharge coefficients and the theoretical discharge coefficients with γ=1.38 under a nonequilibrium flow condition for CO2
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The discharge coefficients of the four nozzles for SF6 versus the inverse of the square root of the theoretical Reynolds number
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The variation of “a” versus the throat diameter for SF6

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