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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Turbulent Transient Gas Injections

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Ouellette

Westport Research Inc., 1691 West 36th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6N 2P9

P. G. Hill

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2324 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4e-mail: hill@mech.ubc.ca

J. Fluids Eng 122(4), 743-752 (Jul 13, 1999) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1319845 History: Revised July 13, 1999; Revised July 18, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Hodgins, K. B., Hill, P. G., Ouellette, P., and Hung, P., 1996, “Directly Injected Natural Gas Fueling of Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper 961671.
Nylund, I., 1993, “Latest Achievements in Gas Diesel Technology and the Experience from some Power Plant Operation,” Transactions of the Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers.
Willi, M. L., and Richards, B. G., 1996, “Design and Development of a Directly Injected Glow Plug Ignition Assisted, Natural Gas Engine,” ASME, ICE-Vol. 22, p. 31.
Meyers, D. P., Bourn, G. D., Hedrick, J. C., and Kubesh, J. T., 1997, “Evaluation of Six Natural Gas Combustion Systems for LNG Locomotive Applications,” SAE 972967.
Hill,  P. G., and Ouellette,  P., 1999, “Transient Turbulent Gaseous Fuel Jets for Diesel Engines,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 121, pp. 93–101.
Miyake, M., Biwa, T., Endoh, Y., Shimotsu, M., Murakami, S., and Komoda, T., 1983, “The Development of High-Output, Highly Efficient Gas Burning Diesel Engines,” CIMAC Paper D11.2.
Chepakovich, A., 1993, “Visualization of Transient Single- and Two-Phase Jets Created by Diesel Engine Injectors,” M.A.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia.
Ouellette, P., 1996, “Direct Injection of Natural Gas for Diesel Engine Fueling,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia.
Rizk,  W., 1958, “Experimental studies of the mixing process and flow configurations in two-cycle engine scavenging,” Proc. I. Mech., 17, pp. 417–424.
Ricou,  F. P., and Spalding,  D. B., 1961, “Measurements of entrainment by axisymmetrical turbulent jets,” J. Fluid Mech., , 11, pp. 21–32.
Witze, P., 1980, “The Impulsively Started Incompressible Turbulent Jet,” SAND80-8617, pp. 3–15.
Abraham, J., Magi, V., MacInnes, J., and Bracco, F. V., 1994, “Gas versus Spray Injection: Which Mixes Faster?” SAE Paper 940895.
Kuo, T. W., and Bracco, F. V., 1982, “On the Scaling of Transient Laminar, Turbulent, and Spray Jets,” Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Paper 820038.
Gaillard, P., 1984, “Multidimensional Numerical Study of the Mixing of an Unsteady Gaseous Fuel Jet with Air in Free and Confined Situations,” SAE Paper 840225.
Malin,  M. R., 1989, “Modelling the Effects of Lateral Divergence on Radially Spreading Jets,” Comput. Fluids, 17, No. 3, pp. 453–465.
Hanjalic,  K., and Laundner,  B. E., 1980, “Sensitizing the Dissipation Equation to Irrotational Strains,” Trans. ASME, 102, p. 34.
Pope,  S. B., 1978, “An Explanation of the Turbulent Round-Jet/Plane-Jet Anomaly,” AIAA J., 16, No. 3, p. 279.
Abraham,  J., 1996, “Entrainment Characteristics of Transient Gas Jets,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 30, pp. 347–364.
Johnson, N. L., Amsden, A. A., Naber, J. D., and Siebers, D. L., 1995, “Three-Dimensional Computer Modeling of Hydrogen Injection and Combustion,” Los Alamos Report LA-UR-95-210.
Amsden, A. A., O’Rourke, P. J., and Butler, T. D., 1989, “KIVA-II: A Computer Program for Chemically Reactive Flows with Sprays,” Los Alamos report LA-11560-MS.
Zhang, J., Fraser, R. A., and Strong, A. B., 1994, “Modelling Diesel Engine Natural Gas Injection: Injector/Cylinder Boundary Conditions,” SAE Paper 940329.
MacInnes, J. M., and Bracco, F. V., 1990, “Computation of the Spray from an Air-Assisted Fuel Injector,” SAE Paper 902079.
Ewan,  B. C. R., and Moodie,  K., 1986, “Structure and Velocity Measurements in Underexpanded Jets,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 45, pp. 275–288.
Ouellette, P., Mtui, P. L., and Hill, P. G., 1998, “Numerical Simulations of Directly Injected Natural Gas and Pilot Diesel Fuel in a Two-Stroke Compression Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper 981400.
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Abraham, J., 1997, “What is Adequate Resolution in the Numerical Computations of Transient Jets?” SAE Paper 970051.

Figures

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Nondimensional penetration rate of turbulent methane jets issued from round nozzles of 2 different diameters. Un=409 m/s,ρna=3.2. Data from Miyake et al. 6. Both axis have units in [s1/2].
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Injector/nozzle interface for 2-d computational mesh
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Mesh and methane mass fraction for axisymmetric transient jet study
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Axial methane mass fraction at the jet forefront, corresponding to jet in Fig. 3
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Three-dimensional chamber and chamber-nozzle interface
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Nondimensional penetration rate and ratio of head vortex to jet tip for uncorrected and corrected turbulent model (simulations)
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Underexpansion process (from Ewan and Moodie 23)
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Nondimensional jet penetration for different underexpansion treatments. Po/pa=5.Tinj is the injection duration and dc is the corrected diameter. The percentage value indicates the reduction in computing time. Units of both axis in [s1/2].
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Comparison of predicted penetration rate with experimental data of Witze 11. Incompressible air jet into air, dn=1.2 mm.
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Schlieren photographs of jet in fixed volume chamber
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Comparison between experimental data and computations
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Effects of chamber turbulence on jet penetration (tkei is the initial turbulence kinetic energy in the chamber)
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Effects of injection duration on jet penetration (tinj is the injection duration)
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Mesh and equivalence ratio contour lines for gaseous jet (left) and for a diesel spray (right) for an equivalent momentum injection rate (dimensions in cm, df2 is diesel #2)
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Mixing rate of a gaseous jet and different sprays. Equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 2 were used to discriminate between lean, flammable and rich mixtures.

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