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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Measurements of Air Entrainment by Bow Waves

[+] Author and Article Information
T. A. Waniewski

Naval Hydrodynamics Division, Science Applications International Corporation, 10260 Campus Point Dr., M/S C4, San Diego, CA 92121

C. E. Brennen, F. Raichlen

Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 104-44 Pasadena, CA 91125

J. Fluids Eng 123(1), 57-63 (Oct 17, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1340622 History: Received June 04, 1999; Revised October 17, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Blanchard,  D. C., and Woodcock,  A. H., 1957, “Bubble Formation and Modification in the Sea and its Meteorological Significance,” Tellus, 9, No. 2, pp. 145–158.
Lamarre,  E., and Melville,  W. K., 1991, “Air Entrainment and Dissipation in Breaking Waves,” Nature (London), 351, pp. 469–472.
Lamarre,  E., and Melville,  W. K., 1994, “Void fraction measurements and sound-speed fields in bubble plumes generated by breaking waves,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 95, No. 3, pp. 1317–1328.
Lamarre,  E., and Melville,  W. K., 1992, “Instrumentation for the Measurement of Void-Fraction in Breaking Waves: Laboratory and Field Results,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng., 17, No. 2, pp. 204–215.
Cipriano,  R. J., and Blanchard,  D. C., 1981, “Bubble and Aerosol Spectra Produced by a Laboratory Breaking Wave,” J. Geophys. Res., 86, pp. 8085–8092.
Loewen,  M. R., O’Dor,  M. A., and Skafel,  M. G., 1996, “Bubbles Entrained by Mechanically Breaking Waves,” J. Geophys. Res., 101, pp. 20759–20769.
Cartmill,  J. W., and Su,  M. Y., 1993, “Bubble size distribution under saltwater and freshwater breaking waves,” Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 20, pp. 25–31.
Chanson, H., and Cummings, P. D., 1994, “Modeling Air Entrainment in Plunging Breakers,” Int. Symp.: Waves-Physical and Numerical Modeling, Vancouver, Canada, June.
Biń,  A. K., 1993, “Gas entrainment by plunging liquid jets,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 48, No. 21, pp. 3585–3630.
Chanson,  H., and Cummings,  P. D., 1994, “Effects of plunging breakers on the gas contents in the ocean,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 28, No. 3, pp. 22–32.
Waniewski, T. A., 1999, “Air Entrainment by Bow Waves,” Ph.D. thesis, Calif. Instit. of Tech.
Chanson, H., 1988, “A study of air entrainment and aeration devices on a spillway model,” Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Canterbury.
Kytomaa, H. K., 1987, “Stability of the Structure in Multicomponent Flow,” Ph.D. thesis, Calif. Instit. of Tech., Pasadena, CA.
Ishii, M., 1975, Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Theory of Two-Phase Flow, Eyrolles, Paris.
Teyssedou,  A., Tapucu,  A., and Lortie,  M., 1988, “Impedance probe to measure local void fraction profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 59, No. 4, pp. 631–638.
Prosperetti,  A., and Oguz,  H. N., 1993, “The impact of drops on liquid surfaces and the underwater noise of rain,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 25, pp. 577–602.
Chanson,  H., 1995, “Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Flows,” Tech. rept. CH46/95. Univ. of Queensland, June.
Van de Sande,  E., and Smith,  J. M., 1976, “Jet break-up and air entrainment by low velocity turbulent water jets,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 31, pp. 219–224.
Carrica, P. M., Bonetto, F., Drew, D., and Lahey, Jr., R. T., 1998, “A Polydisperse Approach to the Two-Phase Flow Around a Ship,” Third Int. Conf. on Multiphase Flow, Lyon, France, June.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Cross sectional view of the IVFM probe (not to scale).
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Frames from high speed video of the single bubble tests showing the IVFM probe tip above the tube which released the bubbles. The time is noted beneath each frame.
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Typical IVFM signal from the single bubble tests; the frames from the corresponding high speed video are shown in Fig. 2.
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Typical IVFM signal from the calibration experiments. A voltage of −1.2 V occurs when no air bubbles are touching the probe tip, and each large negative pulse corresponds to an air bubble encounter.
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Calibration data for the IVFM from the bubbly column facility. The different groups of points were produced by processing the same data set using different thresholds; (○) for threshold=−0.50 V, (+) for threshold=−0.75 V, and ( * ) for threshold=−1.00 V. A linear curve fit for the data corresponding to threshold=−0.75 V also is shown.
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Photograph of bubble clouds passing by the IVFM probe, the tip of which is visible in the center. The flow is from right to left with θ=25°,ϕ=0°,U=2.47 m/s,d=7.39 cm, and F=2.90.
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Schematic diagram of the planform of the flow with a typical IVFM traverse (⋯) indicated.
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A typical signal from the IVFM located several centimeters beneath the bow wave plunging jet: θ=26°,U=2.39 m/s,d=6.47 cm,F=3.00, and α=6.5 percent.
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Local, averaged void fractions beneath the bow wave plunging jet for a traverse at x=91.2, and for θ=26°,ϕ=0°,U=2.48 m/s,d=7.89 cm, and F=2.82. The IVFM measurement locations are marked (•) and labeled with the void fraction (percent). Nine equally spaced contour levels (Δα=1 percent) also are shown.
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Local, averaged void fractions for six different traverses: (a), (c), and (e) for the flow conditions specified in Fig. 9 and (b), (d), and (f ) for θ=26°,ϕ=0°,U=2.39 m/s,d=6.47 cm, and F=3.00. Ten equally spaced contour levels (Δα=1 percent) are shown.
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Total volume of air entrained per unit streamwise distance as a function of distance from the origin of the impact line, x*; (•) for the traverses of Fig. 10(a), (c), and (e) and (▴) for those of Fig. 10(b), (d), and (f ). A quadratic curve fit (- -) also is shown.
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Bubble chord histograms from bubble clouds observed at x=75.9 cm for different elevations. Upper: y=66.6 cm. Middle: y=63.5 cm. Lower: y=60.5.
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Detail of signal processing technique. Upper: raw IVFM signal. Lower: cloud detection algorithm output, frequency of individual bubble impacts, from the IVFM signal.
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Schematic diagram of the proposed air entrainment mechanism. A time series of plunging jets and bubble clouds is depicted; (⋯) for t=0, (- -) for t=Δt, and (—) for t=2Δt.

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