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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Force and Pressure of a Diffuser-Equipped Bluff Body in Ground Effect

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrea E. Senior, Xin Zhang

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom

J. Fluids Eng 123(1), 105-111 (Oct 03, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1340637 History: Received April 27, 2000; Revised October 03, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

George,  A., 1981, “Aerodynamic effects of shape, camber, pitch and ground proximity on idealized ground-vehicle shapes,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 103, Dec., pp. 631–638.
George, A., and Donis, J., 1983, “Flow patterns, pressures, and forces on the underside of idealized ground effect vehicles,” Proceedings of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division Symposium on Aerodynamics of Transportation-II, Vol. 7, Dec., pp. 69–79.
Sovran, G., 1994, “The kinematic and fluid-mechanic boundary conditions in underbody flow simulation,” Proceedings of the CNR-Pininfarina Workshop on Wind Tunnel Simulation of Ground Effect, Turin, Italy, May.
Cooper, K., Bertenyi, T., Dutil, G., Syms, J., and Sovran, G., 1998, “The aerodynamic performance of automotive underbody diffusers,” SAE Paper 98-0030, Jan.
Brundrett,  E., and Baines,  W., 1964, “The production and diffusion of vorticity in duct flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 19, pp. 375–394.
Burgin,  K., Adey,  P. C., and Beatham,  J. P., 1986, “Wind tunnel tests on road vehicle models using a moving belt simulation of ground effect,” J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 22, pp. 227–236.
Moffat,  R., 1988, “Describing the uncertainties in experimental results,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 1, pp. 3–17.
Maltby, R., and Keating, R., 1962, “Flow visualization in wind tunnels using indicators,” AGARDDoraph, Apr. pp. 29–38.
Morel, T., 1978, “The effect of base slant on the flow pattern and drag of three-dimensional bodies with blunt ends,” Aerodynamic Drag Mechanisms of Bluff Bodies and Road Vehicles, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 191–226.
Reneau,  L., Johnston,  J., and Kline,  S., 1967, “Performance and design of straight two-dimensional diffuser,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 89, pp. 141–150.

Figures

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A perspective view of the model setup
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Force coefficients. (a) CL versus hr/d; (b) CD versus hr/d
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Surface pressure coefficients underneath the diffuser along the centerline. Diffuser inlet at x/d=4.95
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Spanwise Cp distributions on the diffuser ramp in the force enhancement region. (a) hr/d=0.764; (b) hr/d=0.382
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Surface flow pattern in the force enhancement region. hr/d=0.764. Flow from left to right. (a) Surface flow on the ramp; (b) surface flow on the side-plate
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Spanwise Cp distributions on the diffuser ramp in the maximum force region. hr/d=0.217
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Surface flow pattern in the maximum force region. hr/d=0.217. Flow from left to right
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Spanwise CL distributions on the diffuser ramp in the force reduction region. (a) hr/d=0.191; (b) hr/d=0.064
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Surface flow pattern in the force reduction region. hr/d=0.191. Flow from left to right
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Spanwise pressure distribution on the diffuser ramp. (a) x/d=5.44; (b) x/d=7.86

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