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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Plane Turbulent Surface Jets in Shallow Tailwater

[+] Author and Article Information
S. A. Ead

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; Currently, Research Associate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G7

N. Rajaratnam

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G7

J. Fluids Eng 123(1), 121-127 (Sep 08, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1331556 History: Received September 27, 1999; Revised September 08, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Albertson,  M. L., Dai,  Y. B., Jensen,  R. A., and Rouse,  H., 1950, “Diffusion of submerged jets,” Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 115, pp. 639–664.
Schlichting, H., 1960, Boundary Layer Theory, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Rajaratnam, N., 1976, Turbulent Jets, Elsevier, The Netherlands.
Miller,  D. R., and Comings,  E. W., 1957, “Static pressure distribution in the free turbulent jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 3, No. 10, pp. 1–16.
Goldschmidt,  V., and Eskinazi,  S., 1966, “Two phase turbulent flow in a plane jet,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 33, No. 4, pp. 735–747.
Heskestad,  G., 1965, “Hot wire measurements in a plane turbulent jet,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 32, No. 4, pp. 721–734.
Kotsovinos, N. E., 1975, “A Study of the Entrainment and Turbulence in a Plane Turbulent Jet,” W. M. Keck Lab. Hydr. Water Resources, Calif. Inst. Technical Report No. KH R-32.
Kotsovinos,  N. E., 1978, “A note on the conservation of the axial momentum of a turbulent jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 87, No. 7, pp. 55–63.
Schneider,  W., 1985, “Decay of momentum flux in submerged jets,” J. Fluid Mech., 154, No. 5, pp. 91–110.
Swean,  T. F. , Ramberg,  S. E., Plesniak,  M. W., and Stewart,  M. B., 1989, “Turbulent surface jet in channel of limited depth,” J. Hydraul. Engr., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 115, No. 12, pp. 1587–1606.
Vanvari, M. R., and Chu, V. H., 1974, “Two-Dimensional Turbulent Surface Jets of Low Richardson Number,” Technical Report No. 74-2 [FML], Fluid Mech. Lab., Dept. of Civ. Engrg. and Appl. Mech., McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada.
Rajaratnam,  N., and Humphries,  J. A., 1984, “Turbulent non-buoyant surface jet,” J. Hydraul. Res., 22, No. 2, pp. 103–115.
Ead,  S. A., and Rajaratnam,  N., 1998, “A double leaf gate for energy dissipation below regulators,” J. Hydraul. Engr., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 124, No. 11, pp. 1134–1145.
Kline,  S. J., and McClintock,  F. A., 1953, “Describing uncertainties in single-sample experiments,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.), 75, pp. 3–8.
Kline,  S. J., 1985, “The purposes of uncertainty analysis,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 107, pp. 153–160.
Chue,  S. H., 1975, “Pressure probes for fluid measurement,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 16, No. 2, pp. 147–223.
Rajaratnam,  N., 1969, “Diffusion of a supercritical stream on a stagnant pool,” Trans. Eng. Inst. Canada,12, No. A-1, pp. 1–5.
Wu,  S., and Rajaratnam,  N., 1995, “Effect of baffles on submerged flows,” J. Hydraul. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 121, No. 9, pp. 644–652.
Ead, S. A., 1998, “Plane Turbulent Jets in Shallow Tailwater and Their Application to Energy Dissipation,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Alberta, AB, Canada.

Figures

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(a) Definition sketch; (b) flow pattern
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Variation of (ϕ) with the offset ratio (η)
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Variation of (θ) with the offset ratio (η) for different Froude numbers
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Variation of (M/Mo) with the offset ratio (η) for different Froude numbers
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(a)–(c) Typical velocity profiles
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Variation of the eddy length with the offset ratio
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Velocity distribution in partially-developed flow (x/bo=6)
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Velocity distribution in fully-developed flow (x/bo≥12)
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(a) Variation of the maximum jet velocity with distance; (b) effect of the offset ratio on the breakdown distance
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Variation of the jet half-width with distance
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Variation of the surface jet discharge with distance
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Variation of the surface jet momentum flux with distance

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