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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fluid Flow Phenomena in Materials Processing—The 2000 Freeman Scholar Lecture

[+] Author and Article Information
Yogesh Jaluria

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903e-mail: jaluria@jove.rutgers.edu

J. Fluids Eng 123(2), 173-210 (Dec 18, 2000) (38 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1350563 History: Received December 18, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Sketches of a few common manufacturing processes that involve the flow of the material being processed. (a) optical fiber drawing; (b) continuous casting; (c) mold casting; (d) plastic screw extrusion
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Sketches of a few processes used for the manufacture of electronic devices. (a) Czochralski crystal growing; (b) floating-zone method for crystal growth; (c) wave soldering; (d) solder joint formation; (e) chemical vapor deposition
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Numerical grids used for the (a) enthalpy method (single region) and (b) the two-phase (two region) method
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Plots of shear stress versus shear rate for viscoinelastic non-Newtonian fluids. (a) Time-independent, and (b) time-dependent fluids.
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Grid for the numerical modeling of the two regions, consisting of glass and inert gases, in optical fiber drawing
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Thermocapillary convection in a rectangular container: (a) schematic sketch and (b) flow in a NaNO3 melt 47
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(a) Sketch of the extrusion process for a heated material, (b) moving material at different time intervals
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Screw channel and simplified computational domain for a single-screw extruder
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Velocity profiles for developed flow in a channel of height H with combined shear due to a wall moving at velocity US and an imposed pressure gradient. (a) Newtonian fluid; (b) non-Newtonian fluid with n=0.5 at different qv.
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Geometry of a practical extrusion die, with R as the inlet radius, along with the calculated streamlines for a non-Newtonian material for typical operating conditions
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Streamlines in the region between two rotating cylinders for CMC solution at 16 rpm. (a) Experimental results; (b) numerical predictions for flow entering the region over one cylinder; (c) comparison of flow division ratio xf obtained from experimental and numerical results 57.
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Calculated velocity and temperature fields in the channel of a single screw extruder at n=0.5 and dimensionless throughput qv=0.3, for typical operating conditions
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Residence time distribution (RTD) calculations. (a) Schematic diagram showing the dye slab and the computational domain for RTD calculations; (b) variation of the dye flow rate, normalized by the total flow rate, with time for typical operating conditions; (c) variation of the cumulative distribution function F(t) for different flow configurations, with t̄ as the average residence time.
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Mixing characteristics in a single screw extruder channel shown in terms of time sequence of distributive mixing of two different materials inside the screw channel 58
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(a) Cam-driven thermocouple for temperature measurements in the screw channel; (b) representation of the loci of points where temperature data are collected 6263
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Comparisons between numerical and experimental results on temperature profiles for Viscasil-300M, with (a) and (c) from the 3D (FEM) model and (b) and (d) from the 2D (FDM) model. For (a) and (b): Ti=20.3°C,Tb=12.2°C,N=20. For (c) and (d): Ti=18.8°C,Tb=22.3°C,N=35.
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Schematic diagram of the cross-section of a tangential twin screw extruder, showing the translation (T) and intermeshing, or mixing (M), regions
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Mesh discretization for the mixing region in a co-rotating tangential twin screw extruder, along with typical computed results for low density polyethylene (LDPE) at n=0.48,Tb=320°C,Ti=220°C,N=60 rpm,qv=0.3
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(a) A corotating twin screw extruder with a self-wiping screw profile; (b) comparison between the results obtained from finite volume and finite element approaches, the latter being shown as points, for a corotating, self-wiping, twin screw extruder
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(a) Experimental arrangement for velocity measurements in the flow of corn syrup in a twin-screw extruder; (b) comparison between calculated and measured tangential velocity Ux profiles for isothermal heavy corn syrup at 26.5°C, with mass flow rate of 6 kg/h and screw speed of 30 rpm
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Isotherms and conversion contours while extruding amioca in a tapered single screw extruder, with Tb=115°C,Ti=90°C,N=100 rpm, mass flow rate ṁ=10 kg/h,moisture=30 percent
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(a) Schematic of the various regions in food extrusion; (b) modeling of powder flow in a single screw extruder
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Calculated (a) streamfunction, (b) vorticity, (c) viscous dissipation, and (d) temperature contours in the optical fiber drawing process for typical drawing conditions
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Iterative convergence of the neck-down profile in optical fiber drawing. Here, r*=r/R and z*=z/L, where R is the preform radius and L the furnace length.
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Results obtained from a feasibility study of the fiber drawing process: (a) different cases studied, showing both feasible and infeasible combinations of parameters and (b) “iso-tension” contours for the feasible range of fiber drawing
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Comparison of the numerical predictions of neck-down profile and draw tension with experimental results
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(a) Schematic of an experimental system for measuring the temperature distribution in a rod located in an optical fiber drawing furnace; (b) computed furnace temperature distributions (solid line) from graphite rod data. Experimental points are from the 1.27 cm diameter rod.
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Sketch of the flow in the chamber and the die for (a) an open cup, and (b) a pressurized coating applicator, showing the upper and lower menisci
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(A, C) Unpressurized test section; (B, D) Meniscus in 630 μm diameter tube, test section pressurized. Fiber speed=20 m/min.
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Inert gas flow field in the optical fiber drawing furnace for two geometrical configurations: inlet flow in opposite direction to fiber motion and side entry
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Streamlines (1) and isotherms (2) for melting of Gallium in an enclosed region, with the left vertical boundary at a temperature higher than melting point, the right vertical boundary at a temperature lower than melting point and the remaining two boundaries insulated. The enthalpy method is used and results are shown at different dimensionless time t following the onset of melting. (a) t=0.5248, (b) t=1.0416, (c) t=1.5622, (d) t=1.9789.
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Isotherms (a,b) and streamlines (c,d) for solidification in a cavity with conjugate transport to the mold. (a, c) t=0.05, and, (b, d) t=0.1.
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Experimental and numerical results for water solidification driven by convection and conduction
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Comparison between measured and predicted interface locations during (a) melting, and (b) solidification of pure tin from a vertical surface 110111
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Schematic of double-diffusive convection during solidification of aqueous Na2CO3 solution at various times following start of the solidification process. (a) 10 min; (b) 30 min; (c) 75 min, and (d) 150 min 112.
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Schematic illustration of the averaging volume and the dendrite envelopes for (a) equiaxed growth and (b) columnar growth 113
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Effect of cooling rate at the mold in terms of the Biot number Bi on the solidification in vertical continuous casting of n-octadecane, using the enthalpy method. (a) Bi=0.05, (b) Bi=0.1, (c) Bi=0.15.
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(a) Schematic of polymer solidification in a channel; (b) dimensionless solid-liquid interface ξ* ; and (c) maximum temperature θmax in the melt, for different outer wall temperatures θw
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(a) Flow in the ambient fluid due to a continuously moving material; (b) dimensionless velocity (u/Us) distribution in the fluid due to a vertically moving heated plate with aiding buoyancy effects
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Calculated time-dependent streamlines for a heated aluminum plate moving vertically in water at Pr=7.0,Re=25, and Gr=1000
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Sequence of shadowgraph photographs showing the flow near the surface of an aluminum plate moving vertically downward in water at a speed of 3.7 cm/s, at Re=140.36 and Gr/Re2=0.45
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Schematic of steps in a chemical vapor deposition process 34
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Practical CVD reactor configurations: (a) horizontal reactor, (b) vertical reactor, (c) barrel reactor, (d) conventional multiple-wafer-in-tube low-pressure reactor 33
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Computed streamlines, temperature distribution, and Nusselt number for different values of dimensionless susceptor velocity Usus
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Comparison between numerical predictions, using the diffusion-controlled approximation and the reaction-controlled chemical modeling, and experimental results of Eversteyn et al. 125
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Comparison between experimental observations and numerical predictions of streamlines at Re=9.48 and Re=29.7 for a ceramic susceptor
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Side view and tail view of the flow pattern in a converging channel with 8 deg tilt. Tail views are located at the end of the heated section with a light sheet oriented perpendicular to the main flow.
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(a) Schematic of the high-pressure liquid-encapsulated Czochralski crystal growing system; (b) grid distribution, flow field and melt-crystal interface at three instants of time showing strong oscillatory behavior which damps out at large time 130

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