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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Visualization and Measurement of Automotive Electrostatic Rotary-Bell Paint Spray Transfer Processes

[+] Author and Article Information
Kyoung-Su Im, Ming-Chia Lai, Yi Liu

Mechanical Engineering Department, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, MI 48202

Nasy Sankagiri

MSX International, Detroit, MI

Thomas Loch, Hossein Nivi

AMTD, Ford Motor Company, Detroit, MI

J. Fluids Eng 123(2), 237-245 (Dec 06, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1359210 History: Received October 30, 1998; Revised December 06, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Tong, E., Chmielewski, G., and Nivi, H., 1995, “Paint Spray Airflow Management,” Proceedings of International Body Engineering Conference & Exposition (IBEC ’95), pp. 39–49, Oct. 31–Nov. 2, 1995, Detroit, MI.
Inkpen,  S., and Melcher,  J. R., 1987, “Dominant Mechanisms for Color Differences in the Mechanical and the Electrostatic Spraying of Metallic Paints,” Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research, 26, pp. 1645–1653.
Fukuta, K., Murate, M., Ohhashi, Y., and Toda, K., 1993, “New Electrostic Rotary Bell for Metallic Paint,” Met. Finish., pp. 39-42.
Elmoursi, A. A., and Lee, H. Y., 1989, “Droplet and Flake Size Distribution in the Electrostatic Spraying of Metallic Paint,” SAE paper 890354.
Tachi,  K., and Okuda,  C., 1992, “Color Variation of Automotive Metallic Finishes,” J. Coat. Technol., 64, No. 811, pp. 64-77.
Marshall, W. R., 1954, “Performance Characteristics of Spinning-Disk Atomizers,” Atomization and Spray Drying, Chapter 3, Republished by Johansen Crosby & Assoc., Inc., Madison, WI, 1986.
Matsumoto, S., Belcher, D. W., and Crosby, E. J., 1985, “Rotary Atomizers: Performance Understanding and Prediction,” Proceedings of ICLASS-85, Madison, WI, pp. 1A/1/1-21.
Lefebvre, A. H. 1989, Atomization and Sprays, Taylor and Francis, Bristol, PA.
Hinze,  J. O., and Milborn,  H., 1950, “Atomization of Liquids by Means of a Rotating Cup,” ASME J. of Appl. Mech., 17, pp. 145-153.
Dombrowski,  N., and Lloyd,  T. L., 1974, “Atomization of Liquids by Spinning Cups,” Chem. Eng. J., 8, pp. 63–81.
Kelly,  A. J., 1994, “On the Statistical Quantum and Practical Mechanics of Electrostatic Atomization,” Journal of Aerosol Science, 25, pp. 1159–1177.
Kwok, K. C., and Liu, B. Y. H., 1991, “New Research Approach to Air Spray Painting,” Proceedings of ICLASS-91, Gaithersburg, MD, pp. 105–112.
Domnick,  J., Lindenthal,  A., Tropea,  C., and Xu,  T. H., 1994, “Measurement in Paint Sprays Using a Phase-Doppler Anemometer,” Atomization Sprays, 4, pp. 437–450.
Bell, G. C., and Hochberg, J., 1981, “Mechanisms of Electrostatic Atomization, Transport, and Deposition of Coatings,” Proceedings of Seventh International Conference in Organic Science and Technology, Athens, Greece.
Bailey,  A. G., and Balachandran,  W., 1984, “The Dispersion of Liquids using Centrifugal and Electrostatic Forces,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-20, 3, pp. 682–686.
Corbeels,  P. L., Senser,  D. W., and Lefebvre,  A. H., 1992, “Atomization Characteristics of a High Speed Rotary Bell Paint Applicator,” Atomization Sprays, 2, pp. 87–99.
Bauckhage, K., Scholz, T., and Schulte, G., 1994, “Atomization of Water-based Metallic Paints by means of Electrostatic Rotary Atomizers,” Proceedings of ICLASS-94, pp. 1010–1019, July 18–22, 1994, Rouen, France.
Bauckhage, K., Scholz, T., and Schulte, G., 1995, “The Influence of Applied High-Voltage on the Atomization Characteristic of a Commercial High-Speed Rotary Atomizer,” 4th International Congress Optical Particle Sizing, Nürnberg, Germany, 21–23 March 1995, pp. 337–346.

Figures

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Schematic diagram for experimental setup
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Near field light-sheet spray visualization at 0 kV condition
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Typical paint spray atomizers
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Schematic of liquid breakup visualization on the bellcup edge
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Microscopic visualization on the bell speed at the liquid flow rate = 50 cc/min (magnification=100×)
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Microscopic visualization on the liquid flow rate at the bell speed = 20,000 rpm (magnification=100×)
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Parametric effects of operation conditions on axial spray cross section
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Parametric effects of operation conditions on radial spray cross section
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Sensitivity of bell operation parameter on spray cone angle
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PDPA results at the reference condition
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Streamline of the ESRB spray
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The effects of bell operation parameters on the drop size profile measured at 7.62 cm from the target
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Sensitivity of bell operation parameters on drop size measurement at 7.62 cm from the target
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Spatial distributions of the drop size histograms at reference condition
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Drop size histogram variation with bell rotational speed at 7.62 cm from the target plane
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Drop size histogram variation with high voltage setting at 7.62 cm from the target plane

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