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TECHNICAL PAPERS

At the Upper Transition of Subcritical Regime of a Circular Cylinder

[+] Author and Article Information
K. W. Lo, N. W. M. Ko

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China

J. Fluids Eng 123(2), 422-434 (Dec 20, 2000) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1365120 History: Received December 04, 1998; Revised December 20, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Variation of formation length of secondary vortices. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
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Scheme of conditional sampling of primary vortex sheet and secondary vortices
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Spectra of streamwise velocity at different streamwise locations. y/d=0.66.Re=1.2×104. x/d: –, 0.1; — — —, 0.2; - ⋅ - ⋅ -, 0.3; - ⋅ ⋅ - ⋅ ⋅ -, 0.4; ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅, 0.5; - - - -, 0.6. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
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Flow visualization (streamwise) of near wake. Re=7.6×103. (a) Secondary vortices; (b) pairing secondary vortices. Different time instants.
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Flow visualization (spanwise) of near wake. (a) Whole span (two dimensional secondary vortices); (b) whole span (local pairing on lower part); (c) whole span (local pairing on lower part, earlier roll-up of primary vortices); (d) close-up (local pairings). Different time instants.
Grahic Jump Location
Time histories of velocity of primary vortex sheet, secondary vortices and paired vortices. (a) Re=4.7×103; (b) Re=1.08×104; (c) Re=3.1×104. 1G: Group I type; 2G: Group II type; 3G: Group III type. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
Grahic Jump Location
Distributions of energies of primary vortex sheet, secondary vortices and random components. ○, primary vortex sheet; □, secondary vortices; ▵, random components. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
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Variations of numbers of samples of secondary and paired vortices at different threshold levels. ▵, 1<σi<2; □, 2<σi<3; ○, σi>3. Open symbol: secondary vortices (fi); solid: paired vortices (fi/2). Uncertainty: ±3 percent.
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of bandwidths of primary vortex sheet and secondary vortices. Δfv/fv: ○, present study; Norberg 1; □, d=3.99 mm; ▵, d=5.98 mm; ▿, d=9.99 mm; ⋄, d=41 mm.Δfi/fi: •, present study; ▴, Norberg 1; ▪, Prasad and Williamson 3. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of numbers of samples of secondary and paired vortices with Reynolds number (σi>3). ○, Group I; □, Group II; ▵, Group III. Open symbol: secondary vortices (fi); solid: paired vortices (fi/2). Uncertainty: ±3 percent.
Grahic Jump Location
Recovered time histories of velocity of primary vortex sheet and secondary vortices at different Reynolds numbers (σi>3). (a) Re=4.7×103; (b) Re=7.5×103; (c) Re=3.1×104. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
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Definitions of recovered time histories.
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Variations of recovered velocities of primary vortex sheet and secondary vortices with Reynolds number (σi>3). ○, 〈uv+1; □, 〈uv+2; ▴, 〈ui2〉. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of maximum recovered energies of secondary vortices at different threshold levels and phase shift. 〈ui2max/ui2: ▵, 1<σi<2; □, 2<σi<3; ○, σi>3;Δτi/ΔTv: •, τi>3. Uncertainty: 〈ui2max/ui2: ±5 percent; Δτi/Δτv: ±5 percent.
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Variations of recovered periods of primary vortex sheet. Symbols as in Fig. 14. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
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Variations of linear strain rate ratios with Reynolds number. Symbols as in Fig. 14. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
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Variations of maximum recovered energy of secondary vortices with linear strain rate ratio (σi>3). ○, Group I; □, Group II; ▵, Group III. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
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Strouhal numbers of secondary vortices and paired vortices. ○, Secondary vortices (fi); ▪, paired vortices (fi/2); ♦, subharmonic forcing at mode II 41. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of maximum recovered energies (σi>3). Secondary vortices 〈ui2〉: ○, Group I; □, Group II; ▵, Group III. Paired vortices 〈ui/22〉: •, Group I; ▪, Group II; ▴, Group III. Uncertainty: ±5 percent.

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