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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Manifold Design for Micro-Channel Cooling With Uniform Flow Distribution

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephen A. Solovitz1

 Washington State University Vancouver 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue Vancouver, WA 98686stevesol@vancouver.wsu.edu

Jeffrey Mainka

 Washington State University Vancouver 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue Vancouver, WA 98686jmainka@wsu.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 133(5), 051103 (Jun 07, 2011) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004089 History: Received December 10, 2010; Revised April 27, 2011; Published June 07, 2011; Online June 07, 2011

High-power electronic systems often require temperature uniformity for optimal performance. While many advanced cooling systems, such as micro-channels, result in significant heat removal, they are also susceptible to flow mal-distribution that can impact the local temperature variation on a device. By examining the pressure drops through each flow path in a multi-channel cooling system, an analytical model is predicted for the optimal manifold shape to produce uniform velocities. This is a simple power law, whose exponent depends on the flow regime in the manifold passages. The model is validated for laminar fully developed conditions using a series of computational simulations. With the power law design, the speeds in a parallel channel design are uniformly distributed at low Reynolds numbers, with a standard deviation of less than 3% of the overall mean channel speed. At higher Reynolds numbers, some mal-distribution is observed due to developing flow conditions, but it is not as significant as with typical untapered designs.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of multi-channel manifold with five channels

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Figure 2

Flow rate branching in each channel and manifold segment

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Figure 3

Optimal manifold taper for various flow conditions, normalized by the minimum manifold diameter

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Figure 4

Schematic of five-channel, optimally-tapered manifold design for laminar, fully developed flow (a) Isometric view (b) Dimensioned top view

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Figure 5

Mean streamwise channel speeds normalized by overall mean speed, Uch /Um , in each channel for the five-channel manifold designs for (a) ReD  = 5 (b) ReD  = 50 (c) ReD  = 500

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Figure 6

Mean streamwise channel speeds normalized by overall mean speed, Uch /Um , for the five-channel, optimally-tapered manifold design for various Reynolds numbers

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Figure 7

Isometric views of CFD model schematics of (a) ten-channel, finite-depth, optimally-tapered manifold design for laminar, fully developed flow (b) narrow rectangular manifold (c) wide Rectangular manifold (d) linearly-tapered manifold

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Figure 8

Mean streamwise channel speeds normalized by overall mean speed, Uch /Um , in each channel for the ten-channel manifold designs for (a) ReDh  = 5, (b) ReDh  = 50, (c) ReDh  = 500

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Figure 9

Mean streamwise channel speeds normalized by overall mean speed, Uch /Um , for the ten-channel, optimally-tapered manifold design for various Reynolds numbers

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