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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Study on Performance and Flow Condition of a Cross-Flow Wind Turbine With a Symmetrical Casing

[+] Author and Article Information
Junichiro Fukutomi

 Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japanfukutomi@me.tokushima-u.ac.jp

Toru Shigemitsu1

 Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japant-shige@me.tokushima-u.ac.jp

Hiroki Daito

 Graduate School of Advanced Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan e-mail: c501032046@stud.tokushima-u.ac.jp

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 133(5), 051101 (May 31, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004023 History: Received January 04, 2010; Revised April 11, 2011; Published May 31, 2011; Online May 31, 2011

A cross-flow wind turbine has a high torque coefficient at a low tip speed ratio. Therefore, it is a good candidate for use as a self-starting turbine. Furthermore, it has low noise and excellent stability; therefore, it has attracted attention from the viewpoint of applications as a small wind turbine for an urban district. However, its maximum power coefficient is extremely low (10%) as compared to that of other small wind turbines. Prevailing winds in two directions often blow in urban and coastal regions. Therefore, in order to improve the performance and the flow condition of the cross-flow rotor, a casing suitable for this sort of prevailing wind conditions is designed in this research and the effect of the casing is investigated by experimental and numerical analysis. In the experiment, a wind tunnel with a square discharge is used and main flow velocity is set as 20 m/s. A torque meter, a rotational speed pickup, and a motor are assembled with the same axis as the test wind turbine and the tip speed ratio is changeable by a rotational speed controller. The casing is set around the cross-flow rotor and flow distribution at the rotor inlet and the outlet is measured by a one-hole pitot tube. The maximum power coefficient is obtained as Cpmax  = 0.19 with the casing, however Cpmax  = 0.098 without the casing. It is clear that the inlet and the outlet flow condition is improved by the casing. In the present paper, in order to improve the performance of a cross-flow wind turbine, a symmetrical casing suitable for prevailing winds in two directions is proposed. Then, the performance and the internal flow condition of the cross-flow wind turbine with the casing are clarified. Furthermore, the influence of the symmetrical casing on performance is discussed and the relation between the flow condition and performance is considered.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Experimental equipment

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Figure 2

Cross-flow rotor and blades

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Figure 3

A cross-flow section of the symmetrical casing

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Figure 4

Each type of symmetrical casing

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Figure 5

Numerical grids around the rotor

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Figure 21

Schematic diagram of each region

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Figure 9

Streamlines (numerical analysis)

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Figure 10

Performance curves of the rotor and casing C1

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Figure 11

Performance curves for casing C1 (Θ = 0 deg, 15 deg, 30 deg); (a) power coefficient, (b) torque coefficient

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Figure 12

β distributions at the inlet of the rotor

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Figure 13

Velocity distributions at the inlet of the rotor (casing C1)

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Figure 14

PS distribution at the outlet of the rotor

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Figure 15

CPS distributions at the inlet of the rotor

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Figure 16

Performance curves of each casing type

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Figure 17

Flow rate against the nozzle throat width

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Figure 18

PS distributions at the inlet of the rotor (λ = 0.35)

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Figure 19

β distributions at the inlet of the rotor; (a) λ = 0.43, (b) λ = 0.35

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Figure 6

Performance curves

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Figure 7

Pressure distributions around the rotor

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Figure 8

Velocity distributions around the rotor

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Figure 20

α distributions at the outlet of the rotor; (a) λ = 0.43, (b) λ = 0.35

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Figure 22

Flow rate ratio in each region

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Figure 23

Euler head in each region

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