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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Liquid Film Atomization on Wall Edges—Separation Criterion and Droplets Formation Model

[+] Author and Article Information
F. Maroteaux

Université Paris VI - LMP, 2 place de la gare de ceinture, 78210 St Cyr L’Ecole, Francee-mail: maroteau@ccr.jussieu.fr

D. Llory, J-F. Le Coz, C. Habchi

IFP, 1&4 avenue du bois préau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison, France

J. Fluids Eng 124(3), 565-575 (Aug 19, 2002) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1493811 History: Received July 11, 2001; Revised March 21, 2002; Online August 19, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Maroteaux, F., and L. Le Moyne, 1995, “Modeling of Fuel Deposition Rate in Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE paper 952484.
Guntz, C., S. Guilain, and F. Maroteaux, 1997, “Modeling of Fuel Behavior in The Intake Manifold of Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE paper 972992.
Fox, J., W. Cheng, J. B. Heywood, and K. Min, 1992, “Mixture Preparation in A SI Engine With Port Fuel Injection During Starting and Warm-Up,” SAE paper 922170.
Bourke, M. C., and L. W. Evers, 1994, “Fuel Film Dynamics in The Intake Port of a Fuel Injected Engine,” SAE paper 940446.
Imatake, N., K. Saito, S. Morishima, S. Kudo, and A. Ohhata, 1997, “Quantitative Analysis of Fuel Behavior in Port-Injection Gasoline Engine,” SAE paper 971639.
Le Moyne, L., and F. Maroteaux, 1997, “Air-Fuel Modeling Applied to The Reduction of Air-Fuel Ratio Excursions During Transients in Port Injected Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE paper 970513.
Shin, Y., W. K. Cheng, and J. B. Heywood, “Liquid Gasoline Behavior in the Engine Cylinder of SI Engine
Meyer, R., and J. B. Heywood, 1997, “Liquid Fuel Transport Mechanisms into the Cylinder of Firing Port-Injected SI Engine During Start Up,” SAE paper 970865.
Meyer, R., and J. B. Heywood, 1999, “Effect of Engine and Fuel Variables on Liquid Fuel Transport into the Cylinder in Port Injected SI Engines,” SAE paper 1999-01-0563.
Koederitz, K. R., and J. A. Drallmeier, 1999, “Film Atomization from Valve Surfaces During Cold Start,” SAE paper 1999-01-0566.
Yilmaz, E., R. Meyer, and J. B. Heywood, 1998, “Liquid Fuel Flow in the Vicinity of the Intake Valve of a Port Injected SI Engines,” SAE paper 982471.
Shin, Y., W. K. Cheng, and J. B. Heywood, 1994, “Liquid Gasoline Behavior in the Engine Cylinder of a SI Engine.” SAE paper 941872.
Koederitz, K. R., and J. A. Drallmeier, 1999, “Film Atomization from Valve Surfaces During Cold Start,” SAE paper 1999-01-0566.
Le Coz, J-F., P. Lossard, and V. Ricordeau, “Visualisation du Mélange Air-Carburant Sur Moteur Transparent Arrachement de Film Stationnaire en Soufflerie,” Internal IFP report.
Taylor,  G. I., 1959, “The Dynamics of Thin Sheets of Fluid II. Waves on Fluid Sheets,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 253, pp. 296–312.
Taylor,  G. I., 1959, “The Dynamics of Thin Sheets of Fluid III. Disintegration of Fluid Sheets,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 253, pp. 313–321.
Habchi, C., and H. Foucart, 2000, “Multidimensional Modeling of Gasoline Spay Impingement and Liquid Film Heat Transfer and Boiling on Heated Surfaces,” Eighth International Conference on Liquid and Spray Systems, CA, USA, July.
Pullin,  D. I., 1982, “Numerical Studies of Surface Tension Effects in Nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities,” J. Fluid Mech., 119, pp. 507–532.
Li,  J., Zaleski,  S., and Scardovelli,  R., “Similutaion Numerique 3D de l’Arrachement de Gouttes sur une Couche Liquide,” Technical report, Laboratoire de Modélisation en Mécanique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie.
Jain,  R. K., and Ruckenstein,  E., 1976, “Stability of Stagnant Viscous Films on a Solid Surface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 54(1), Jan.
Lefebvre, A. H., 1989, Atomization and Sprays. Hemisphere Publishing.
Le Coz, J-F., and T. Baritaud, 1996, “Application of Laser Induced Fluorescence for Measuring the Thickness of Evaporating Gasoline Liquid Films,” In 7th INT.SYMP., Developments in Laser Techniques and Applications to Fluid Mechanics, Proceedings of the 7th Intl.Symp. ISBN: 3-540-60236-4.
Habchi, C., and A. Torros, 1992, “A 3-D Multi-Block Structured Version of the Kiva-2 Code,” First European CFD Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1.
Habchi, C., D. Verhoeven, C. Huynh Huu, L. Lambert, J. T. Vanhemelryck, and T. Baritaud, 1997, “Modeling Atomization and Break Up in High-Pressure Diesel Sprays,” SAE paper 970881.

Figures

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Analogy with Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities
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Film configuration for a step angle of 135 deg (tsfilm: film thickness)
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Ratio between the bend radius and the film thickness versus step angle
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Atomization scheme (tsfilm: film thickness)
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Wind-tunnel configuration
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Typical image, condition with established stripping
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Optical arrangement for film thickness measurement on the step
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Measured film thickness for 80 m/s air velocity (springboard step case)
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Film behavior versus liquid flow rate. Left: below the limit flow rate, no film separation. Right: above the limit flow rate, part of the film is converted into droplets.
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Critical angle for 80 m/s air velocity (springboard step)
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Critical angle for 60 m/s air velocity (springboard step)
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Critical angle for 80 m/s air velocity (straight step)
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Critical angle for 60 m/s air velocity (straight step)
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Experimental view (springboard step), air velocity 80 m/s, fuel flow rate 0.1 cm3/s: some droplets
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Experimental view (springboard step), air velocity 80 m/s, fuel flow rate 0.5 cm3/s: established stripping
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Experimental view (springboard step), air velocity 60 m/s, fuel flow rate 0.09 cm3/s: rare droplets
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Experimental view (springboard step), air velocity 60 m/s, fuel flow rate 0.5 cm3/s: established stripping
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Computation example: air velocity=80 m/s, fuel rate=0.5 cm3/s (numerical tunnel configuration: 20 cm long, section 5 cm per 5 cm; computation of droplets distribution are made at 6 cm along the tunnel axis)
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Initial distribution at the edge for two width parameters (q)
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Calculated distribution 60 mm downstream
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Measured distribution 60 mm downstream (air velocity of 80 m/s and fuel flow rate of 0.5 cm3/s)
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Droplet size distribution (springboard step), air velocity 80 m/s, fuel rate 0.5 cm3/s
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Droplet size distribution (springboard step), air velocity 80 m/s, fuel rate 0.29 cm3/s
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Droplet size distribution (springboard step), air velocity 60 m/s, fuel rate 0.5 cm3/s
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Droplet size distribution (straight step), air velocity 80 m/s, fuel rate 0.5 cm3/s
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Configuration of film disturbance and stripping
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Amplitude of disturbance for film thickness of 25 μm
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Normal velocity of disturbance for film thickness of 25 μm
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Amplitude of disturbance for film thickness of 50 μm
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Normal velocity of disturbance for film thickness of 50 μm
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Amplitude of disturbance for film thickness of 100 μm
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Normal velocity of disturbance for film thickness of 100 μm
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Perturbation resulting from a difference of density
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Experimental view (straight step), air velocity 80 m/s, fuel flow rate 0.16 cm3/s: rare droplets
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Experimental view (straight step), air velocity 80 m/s, fuel flow rate 0.24 cm3/s: established stripping

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