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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Film Thickness and Wave Velocity Measurements in a Vertical Duct

[+] Author and Article Information
Ranganathan Kumar

Lockheed Martin Corporation, Schenectady, NY 12301  

Matthias Gottmann, K. R. Sridhar

The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721

J. Fluids Eng 124(3), 634-642 (Aug 19, 2002) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1493808 History: Received February 14, 2001; Revised April 10, 2002; Online August 19, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

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Hewitt, G. F., and Govan, A. H., 1990, “Phenomena and Prediction in Annular Two-Phase Flow,” ASME FED-Vol. 99, Advances in Gas-Liquid Flows, Kim, J. H., et al., eds., pp. 41–56.
Lilleleht,  L. U., and Hanratty,  T. J., 1961, “Relation of Interfacial Shear Stress to the Wave Height for Cocurrent Air-Water Flow,” AIChE J., 7, pp. 548–550.
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Sekoguchi,  K., Hori,  K., Nakazatomi,  M., and Nishikawa,  K., 1978, “On Ripple of Annular Two-Phase Flow - 2. Characteristics of Wave and Interfacial Friction Factor,” Bull. JSME, 21, No. 152.
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Coney,  M. W. E., 1973, “The Theory and Application of Conductance Probes for the Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness in Two-Phase Flow,” Journal of Physics and Engineering: Scientific Instrumentation, 6, pp. 903–910.
Koskie,  J. E., Mudawar,  I., and Tiederman,  W. G., 1989, “Parallel-Wire Probes for Measurement of Thick Liquid Films,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 15(4), pp. 521–530.
Kang,  H. C., and Kim,  M. H., 1992, “The Development of a Flush-Wire Probe and Calibration Methods for Measuring Liquid Film Thickness,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 18(3), pp. 423–437.
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Figures

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Schematic of the experimental apparatus
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Cross-section and photograph of injector
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Details of the flush-wire probe
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Conductivity probe signal for different separation distances between the wire tip and the flush electrode at 9.4×10−3 m3/s (20 cfm) air and 1.25×10−4 m3/s (2 gpm) water flow rate
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Calibration chart for film thickness based on conductivity probe data
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Flow regime map: (a) current study in rectangular test section with test matrix; (b) comparison of transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow regime with available data in rectangular and circular ducts
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Probability density plots of film thickness for various combinations of air and water flow rates
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Nondimensional standard deviation versus nondimensional base film thickness
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(a) Base film thickness versus Reg; (b) standard deviation of film thickness versus Reg
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(a) Nondimensional base film thickness versus Reynolds number ratio; (b) relative roughness of the film versus Reynolds number ratio
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Relative roughness or wave roughness of the film versus nondimensional base film thickness
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Spectral density plots for increasing air flow rates (from top left to bottom right) and for the same water flow rate of 0.6 gpm (indicated by xx-06 in each plot). The Reynolds number ratio, R, and the relative roughness, K, are also given for each flow combination.
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Frictional pressure drop in the test section
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(a) Dimensional wave velocity versus Reg; (b) Nondimensional wave velocity versus Rel/Reg

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