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ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL PAPERS

Effect of Gap Size on Tip Leakage Cavitation Inception, Associated Noise and Flow Structure

[+] Author and Article Information
Shridhar Gopalan, Joseph Katz, Han L. Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218

J. Fluids Eng 124(4), 994-1004 (Dec 04, 2002) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1514496 History: Received March 21, 2002; Revised May 03, 2002; Online December 04, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Arndt,  R. E. A., 1981, “Cavitation in Fluid Machinery and Hydraulic Structures,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 13, pp. 273–328.
Brennen, C. E., 1995, Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Katz,  J., and O’hern,  T. J., 1986, “Cavitation in Large-Scale Shear Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 108, pp. 373–376.
O’hern,  T. J., 1990, “An Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Shear Flow Cavitation,” J. Fluid Mech., 215, pp. 365–391.
Ran,  B., and Katz,  J., 1991, “The Response of Microscopic Bubbles to Sudden Changes in Ambient Pressure,” J. Fluid Mech., 224, pp. 91–115.
Belahadji,  B., Franc,  J. P., and Michel,  J. M., 1995, “Cavitation in the Rotational Structures of a Turbulent Wake,” J. Fluid Mech., 287, pp. 383–403.
Gopalan,  S., Katz,  J., and Knio,  O., 1999, “The Flow Structure in the Near Field of Jets and Its Effect on Cavitation Inception,” J. Fluid Mech., 398, pp. 1–43.
Higuchi,  H., Arndt,  R. E. A., and Rogers,  M. F., 1989, “Characteristics of Tip Vortex Cavitation Noise,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 111, pp. 495–501.
Maines,  B. H., and Arndt,  R. E. A., 1997, “Tip Vortex Formation and Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 119, pp. 413–419.
Hsiao,  C. T., and Pauley,  L. L., 1998, “Numerical Study of the Steady-State Tip Vortex Flow Over a Finite-Span Hydrofoil,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 120, pp. 345–353.
Farrell,  K. J., and Billet,  M. L., 1994, “A Correlation of Leakage Vortex Cavitation in Axial-Flow Pumps,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 116, pp. 551–557.
Boulon,  O., Callenaere,  M., Franc,  J. P., and Michel,  J. M., 1999, “An Experimental Insight Into the Effect of Confinement on Tip Vortex Cavitation of an Elliptical Hydrofoil,” J. Fluid Mech., 390, pp. 1–23.
Chen, B., 2002 (NSWC-Carderock Division) private communication.
Roth, G., Hart, D., and Katz, J., 1995, “Feasibility of Using the L64720 Video Motion Estimation Processor (MEP) to Increase Efficiency of Velocity Map Generation for PIV,” ASME/EALA Sixth International Symposium on Laser Anemometry, Hilton Head, SC.
Roth,  G., and Katz,  J., 2001, “Five Techniques for Increasing the Speed and Accuracy of PIV Interrogation,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 12, p. 238.
Sridhar,  G., and Katz,  J., 1995, “Lift and Drag Forces on Microscopic Bubbles Entrained by a Vortex,” Phys. Fluids, 7, pp. 389–399.
Gopalan,  S., and Katz,  J., 2000, “Flow Structure and Modeling Issues in the Closure Region of Attached Cavitation,” Phys. Fluids, 12, pp. 895–911.
Huang,  N. E., , 1998, “The Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Hilbert Spectrum for Non-linear and Non-stationary Time Series Analysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 454, pp. 903–995.

Figures

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(a) Experimental facility, (b) close-up of test section, (c) two three-dimensional views of the hydrofoil, showing the geometry
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Estimated spanwise lift distribution on the hydrofoil at 0 deg incidence
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Size distribution of cavitation nuclei measured upstream of the leading edge of the hydrofoil
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(a) Setup for cavitation inception measurements. (b) Setup for PIV measurements in the plane XY. Intersection of tip and TE corresponds to Y=0.
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A sample accelerometer signal showing several spikes caused as a result of cavitation
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Cavitation event rates as a function of the cavitation index σ, for three gap sizes
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Six consecutive frames, 1 ms apart, are superimposed to show the trajectory of the bubbly tip leakage vortex. The gap size in this example is 0.6 mm.
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(a) A high-speed series (frames 1299–1304) at 2000 fps (gap size, 2.6 mm). Flow is from left to right with suction surface, tip and trailing edge (TE) visible (σ=10). (b) Corresponding accelerometer and strobe signals (indicated by vertical bars). (c) Hilbert-Huang spectrum of the accelerometer signal. Frame timings are indicated by dashed lines. Table 1 is included in Fig. 8.  
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(a) A high-speed series (frames 2103–2107) at 2000 fps (gap size, 2.6 mm). Flow is from left to right with suction surface, tip and trailing edge visible (σ=10). (b) Corresponding accelerometer and strobe signals (indicated by vertical bars at the bottom). (c) Hilbert-Huang spectrum of the accelerometer signal. Frame timings are indicated by dashed lines. Table 2 is included in Fig. 9.  
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(a) A high-speed series (frames 1493–1498) at 2000 fps (gap size, 0.6 mm). Flow is from left to right with suction surface and tip visible (σ=10). (b) Corresponding accelerometer and strobe signals (indicated by vertical bars). (c) Hilbert-Huang spectrum of the accelerometer signal. Frame timings are indicated by dashed lines. Table 3 is included in Fig. 10.  
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A 0.25 s long exposure showing the trajectory of the bubbly tip leakage vortex as seen in a side view (Fig. 1(b)), for gaps of (a) 0.6 mm; (b) 1.4 mm; (c) 2.6 mm. Flow is from left to right. The hydrofoil with its trailing edge and tip is visible on the left edge of the images.
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Sample instantaneous vorticity (a, c, and e) and their “zoomed in” counterparts (b, d, and f) with instantaneous velocity in the plane xy for gap sizes of 0.6, 1.4, and 2.6 mm, respectively. The dashed boxes in the two views represent the same area.
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Probability density histograms of circulation in the tip leakage vortex for the three gap sizes and corresponding minimum pressure coefficients.
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Locations of the tip leakage vortex cores in the plane xy for gap sizes of (a) 0.6 mm (b) 1.4 mm and (c) 2.6 mm.

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