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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Direct Design of Ducts

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Ashrafizadeh, G. D. Raithby, G. D. Stubley

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada

J. Fluids Eng 125(1), 158-165 (Jan 22, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1514201 History: Received September 05, 2001; Revised June 04, 2002; Online January 22, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Gibbings,  J. C., 1993, “Incompressible Flow in Contracting Ducts,” Aeronaut. J., 97, pp. 230–246.
Johnston,  J. P., 1998, “Review: Diffuser Design and Performance Analysis by a Unified Integral Method,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 120, pp. 6–18.
Rehman, F., and Bowyer, Jr., J. M., 1989, “Turbulent Incompressible Air Flow Through S-Shaped Ducts With Cross-Sectional Area Change,” Forum on Turbulent Flows, ASME, The Fluids Engineering Division (FED) Vol. 76, ASME, New York, 76 , pp. 49–57.
Stanitz,  J. D., 1988, “A Review of Certain Inverse Methods for the Design of Ducts With 2 or 3-Dimensional Potential Flow,” Appl. Mech. Rev., 41(6), pp. 217–238.
Parsons,  D. J., and Hill,  P. G., 1973, “Effects of Curvature on Two-Dimensional Diffuser Flow,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 95(3), pp. 349–360.
Ashrafizadeh, A., and Raithby, G. D., 1999, “Prediction of Efficient Shapes for Nozzles and Diffusers,” Proceedings of 46th Annual CASI Conference, Canadian Aerospace and Space Institute, pp. 169–178.
Fabbri,  G., 1997, “A Genetic Algorithm for Fin Profile Optimization,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 40(9), pp. 2165–2172.
Cheng,  Chin-Hsiang, and Wu,  Chun-Yin, 2000, “An Approach Combining Body Fitted Grid Generation and Conjugate Gradient Methods for Shape Design in Heat Conduction Problems,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B, 37, pp. 69–83.
Jameson, A., 1994, “Optimum Aerodynamic Design Via Boundary Control,” Optimum Design Methods for Aerodynamics, AGARD Report No. R-803, pp. 3.1–3.33.
Chaviaropoulos,  P., DeDoussis,  V., and Papailiou,  K. D., 1995, “On the 3-D Inverse Potential Target Pressure Problem. Part 1. Theoretical Aspects and Method Formulation,” J. Fluid Mech., 282, pp. 131–146.
Raithby,  G. D., Xu,  W.-X., and Stubley,  G. D., 1995, “Prediction of Incompressible Free Surface Flows With an Element-Based Finite Volume Method,” Computational Fluid Dynamics J., 4(3), pp. 353–371.
Xu, W.-X., Raithby, G. D., and Stubley, G. D., 1996, “Prediction of Compliant-Surface Flows,” Proceedings of 4th Conference of CFD Society of Canada, pp. 293–300.
Ashrafizadeh, A., and Raithby, G. D., 2000, “A New Direct Solution Technique for Internal Flow Design Problems,” Proceedings of 8th Annual Conference of CFD Society of Canada, pp. 715–720.
Ashrafizadeh,  A., Raithby,  G. D., and Stubley,  G. D., 2002, “Direct Design of Shape,” Numer. Heat Transf.—Part B, 41, pp. 501–510.
Ronel, J. K., and Baliga, B. R., 1979, “A Finite Element Method for Unsteady Heat Conduction in Materials With and Without Phase Change,” ASME Paper No. 79-WA/HT-4.
Schneider,  G. E., and Raw,  M. J., 1987, “Control-Volume Finite Element Method for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Using Co-Located Variables-1. Computational Procedure,” Numer. Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 363–390.
Bradshaw, P., 1970, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Oxford University New York; Pergamon Press, 2nd Ed.
Carlson,  J. J., Johnston,  J. P., and Sagi,  C. J., 1967, “Effects of Wall Shape on Flow Regimes and Performance in Straight, Two-Dimensional Diffusers,” J. Basic Eng., 89(1), pp. 151–160.
Das,  D. K., 1992, “An Inverse Inner-Variable Theory for Separated Turbulent Boundary Layers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 114, pp. 543–553.
Ashrafizadeh, A., 2000, “A Direct Shape Design Method For Thermo-Fluid Engineering Problems,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Figures

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Categorization of ducts
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A 90 deg curved nozzle. Calculated (solid curves) and target (dashed curves) wall velocities are shown in (b).
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A 90 deg curved diffuser. Calculated (solid curves) and target (dashed curves) wall velocities are shown in (b).
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Coarse mesh showing initial and final node locations
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Definition sketch showing spines used for grid generation
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Validation using the Stanitz’ elbow problem. Initial guessed shape (a), initial wall velocity (b), and designed shape (c) for TVD in (d). Dashed line in (c) is Stanitz’ solution, 4.
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Design of a straight nozzle. Initial guessed shape (a) and initial wall velocity (b). (c) and (e) are designed shapes for the TVDs in (d) and (f), respectively.
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Design of a straight diffuser. Initial guessed shape (a) and initial wall velocity (b). (c) and (e) are designed shapes for the TVDs in (d) and (f), respectively.
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Design of a 90 deg curved nozzle. Initial guessed shape (a), initial wall velocity (b), and designed shape (c) for TVD in (d).
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Design of a 90 deg uniform elbow. Initial guessed shape (a), initial wall velocity (b) and designed shape (c) for TVD in (d).
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Design of a 90 deg curved diffuser. Initial guessed shape (a), initial wall velocity (b), and designed shape (c) for TVD in (d).
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Design of a contracting S-bend. Initial guessed shape (a), initial wall velocity (b), and designed shape (c) for TVD in (d).
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Design of an expanding S-bend. Initial guessed shape (a), initial wall velocity (b), and designed shape (c) for TVD in (d). Data in (d) are from 3.

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