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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Influence of Diffuser Angle on a Bluff Body in Ground Effect

[+] Author and Article Information
Andreas Ruhrmann, Xin Zhang

Aeronautics and Astronautics, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

J. Fluids Eng 125(2), 332-338 (Mar 27, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1537252 History: Received July 16, 2001; Revised October 07, 2002; Online March 27, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

George,  A. R., 1981, “Aerodynamic Effects of Shape Camber, Pitch, and Ground Proximity on Idealized Ground Vehicle Bodies,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 103, pp. 631–638.
George, A. R., and Donis, J. E., 1983, “Flow Patterns, Pressures, and Forces on the Underside of Idealized Ground Effect Vehicles,” Proceedings of the ASME, Fluids Engineering Division, 7 , ASME, New York, pp. 69–79.
Sovran, G., 1994, “The Kinematic and Fluid-Mechanic Boundary Conditions in Underbody Flow Simulation,” Proceedings of the CNR-Pininfarina Workshop on Wind Tunnel Simulation of Ground Effect, Turin, Italy, May, National Research Council.
Cooper, K. R., Bertenyi, T., Dutil, G., Syms, J., and Sovran, G., 1998, “The Aerodynamic Performance of Automotive Underbody Diffusers,” SAE Paper No. 980030.
Cooper, K. R., Sovran, G., and Syms, J., 2000, “Selecting Automotive Diffusers to Maximize Underbody Downforce,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0354.
Senior,  A. E., and Zhang,  X., 2001, “The Force and Pressure of a Diffuser-Equipped Bluff Body in Ground Effect,” J. Fluid Eng., 123, pp. 105–111.
Senior, A. E., 2002, “An Investigation of a Generic 3D Diffuser in Ground Effect,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton, Apr.
Moffat,  R., 1988, “Describing the Uncertainties in Experimental Results,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 1, pp. 3–17.
Polhamus,  E. C., 1971, “Predictions of Vortex-Lift Characteristics by a Leading-Edge Suction Analogy,” J. Aircr., 8(4), pp. 193–199.
Wentz,  W. H., and Kohlman,  D. L., 1971, “Vortex Breakdown on Slender Sharp-Edged Wings,” J. Aircr., 8(3), pp. 156–161.
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Zerihan,  J., and Zhang,  X., 2000, “Aerodynamics of a Single Element Wing in Ground Effect,” J. Aircr., 37(6), pp. 1058–1064.
Burgin,  K., Addey,  P. C., and Beatham,  J. P., 1986, “Wind Tunnel Tests on Road Vehicle Models Using a Moving Belt Simulation of Ground Effect,” J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 22, pp. 227–236.

Figures

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Schematic of model; (a) a prospective view of the model, (b) a side view of the model
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Force curves: 30 m/s; (a) downforce coefficient, (b) drag coefficient
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Flow types for high angle diffusers: 15 deg diffuser, CL, 30 m/s
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Downforce coefficients: renormalized ride heights, 30 m/s
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Surface flow visualization on the ramp at maximum downforce, 30 m/s. Flow from left to right. Picture area corresponds to the ramp area. (a) 5-deg diffuser: hr/(d×θ)=0.657, (b) 10-deg diffuser hr/(d×θ)=0.694, (c) 15-deg diffuser—moving down: hr/(d×θ)=0.584.
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Centerline pressure coefficients: 30 m/s. (a) 20 deg diffuser, (b) 5 deg diffuser.
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Surface pressure coefficients: 20 degree diffuser, hr/(d×θ)=2.008, 30 m/s
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Mean base pressures, 30 m/s; (a) 20 deg diffuser, (b) 5 deg diffuser
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Pressure contours: 5 deg diffuser, 30 m/s; (a) hr/(d×θ)=1.241, (b) hr/(d×θ)=0.730
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Surface flow visualization on the ramp: 20 deg diffuser, hr/(d×θ)=0.694, 30 m/s. Flow from left to right. Picture area corresponds to the ramp area.
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Surface flow visualization on the ramp: 15 deg diffuser, hr/(d×θ)=0.560, 30 m/s. Flow from left to right. Picture area corresponds to the ramp area.
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Surface pressure coefficients: 20 deg diffuser, hr/(d×θ)=0.694, 30 m/s
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Surface pressure coefficients: 20 deg diffuser, hr/(d×θ)=0.365, 30 m/s
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Surface pressure coefficients: 20 deg diffuser, hr/(d×θ)=0.091, 30 m/s

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