Air Entrainment Processes in a Circular Plunging Jet: Void-Fraction and Acoustic Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Chanson

Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia   e-mail: h.chanson@uq.edu.au

R. Manasseh

CSIRO Thermal and Fluid Engineering, P.O. Box 56, Highett VIC 3190, Australiae-mail: richard.manasseh@dbce.csiro.au

J. Fluids Eng 125(5), 910-921 (Oct 07, 2003) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1595672 History: Received October 16, 2001; Revised March 10, 2003; Online October 07, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Jameson, G. L., 1995, “Bubbly Flows and the Plunging Jet Flotation Column,” Proceedings of 12th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, R. W. Bilger, ed., Sydney, Australia, 2 , pp. 735–742.
Chanson, H., 1997, Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows, Academic Press, London.
Kolani, A. R., Oguz, H. N., and Prosperetti, A., 1998, “A New Aeration Device,” Proceedings ASME Fluids Eng. Summer Meeting, June 21–25, Washington, D.C., 257 , pp. 111–145.
Cummings,  P. D., and Chanson,  H., 1997, “Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Part 1: Theoretical Development,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 119(3), pp. 597–602.
Cummings,  P. D., and Chanson,  H., 1997, “Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Part 2: Experimental,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 119(3), pp. 603–608.
Brattberg,  T., and Chanson,  H., 1998, “Air Entrapment and Air Bubble Dispersion at Two-Dimensional Plunging Water Jets,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 53(24), pp. 4113–4127; Errata: 1999, 54(12), p. 1925.
Bin,  A. K., 1993, “Gas Entrainment by Plunging Liquid Jets,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 48(21), pp. 3585–3630.
Ervine,  D. A., 1998, “Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Structures: a Review,” Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers, Water, Maritime & Energy, UK,130, pp. 142–153.
Ervine, D. A., McKeogh, E. J., and Elsawy, E. M., 1980, “Effect of Turbulence Intensity on the Rate of Air Entrainment by Plunging Water Jets,” Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineering., Part 2, June, pp. 425–445.
Cummings,  P. D., and Chanson,  H., 1999, “An Experimental Study of Individual Air Bubble Entrainment at a Planar Plunging Jet,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 77(A2), pp. 159–164.
Chanson, H., and Brattberg, T., 1998, “Air Entrainment by Two-Dimensional Plunging Jets: The Impingement Region and the Very-Near Flow Field,” Proc. 1998 ASME Fluids Eng. Conf., FEDSM’98, Washington, DC, June 21–25, FEDSM98-4806.
Minnaert,  M., 1933, “On Musical Air Bubbles and the Sound of Running Water,” Philos. Mag., 16, pp. 235–248.
Leighton, T. G., 1994, The Acoustic Bubble, Academic Press, London.
Manasseh, R., 1997, “Acoustic Sizing of Bubbles at Moderate to High Bubbling Rates,” Proc. 4th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Brussels, 2–6, June.
Boyd,  J. W. R., and Varley,  J., 2001, “The Uses of Passive Measurement of Acoustic Emissions From Chemical Engineering Processes,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 56, pp. 1749–1767.
Manasseh, R., and Chanson, H., 2001, “Void-Fraction and Acoustic Characteristics of Gas Bubbles Entrained by a Circular Plunging Jet,” Proc. 4th Intl Conf. Multiphase Flow, ICMF’01, E. E. Michaelides, ed., New Orleans, LA.
Manasseh,  R., LaFontaine,  R. F., Davy,  J., Shepherd,  I. C., and Zhu,  Y., 2001, “Passive Acoustic Bubble Sizing in Sparged Systems,” Exp. Fluids, 30(6), pp. 672–682.
Esslingen, 1984, “Scale Effects in Modelling Hydraulic Structures,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Scale Effects in Modelling Hydraulic Structures, H. Kobus, ed., IAHR, Esslingen, Germany.
Wood, I. R., 1991, “Air Entrainment in Free-Surface Flows,” IAHR Hydraulic Structures Design Manual No. 4, Hydraulic Design Considerations, Balkema, Rotterdam.
McKeogh, E. J., 1978, “A Study of Air Entrainment Using Plunging Water Jets,” Ph.D. thesis, Queen’s University of Belfast, UK.
El-Hammoumi, M., 1994, “Entrai⁁nement d’Air par Jet Plongeant Vertical. Application aux Becs de Remplissage Pour le Dosage Pondéral,” Ph.D. thesis, INPG, Grenoble, France (in French).
Oguz,  H. N., 1998, “The Role of Surface Disturbances in the Entrainment of Bubbles by a Liquid Jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 372, pp. 189–212.
Zhu,  Y., Oguz,  H., and Prosperetti,  A., 2000, “On the Mechanism of Air Entrainment by Liquid Jets at a Free Surface,” J. Fluid Mech., 404, pp. 151–177.
Lunde, K., and Perkins, R. J., 1996, “A Method for the Detailed Study of Bubble Motion and Deformation,” Multiphase Flow 1995, Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conference on Multiphase Flow, A. Serizawa, T. Fukano, and J. Bataille, eds., pp. 395–405.
Yoshida, S., Manasseh, R., and Kajio, N., 1998, “The Structure of Bubble Trajectories Under Continuous Sparging Conditions,” Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Lyon, France.
Manasseh, R., Yoshida, S., and Kajio, N., 1998, “Bubble Trajectory Bifurcations in Cross Flow,” Proceedings, 13th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Monash University, Melbourne, Dec. 13–18, pp. 1013–1018.
Bonetto,  F., and Lahey,  R. T., 1993, “An Experimental Study on Air Carryunder due to a Plunging Liquid Jet,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 19(2), pp. 281–294.
Detsch,  R. M., and Sharma,  R. N., 1990, “The Critical Angle for Gas Bubble Entrainment by Plunging Liquid Jets,” Chem. Eng. J., 44, pp. 157–166.
McKeogh,  E. J., and Ervine,  D. A., 1981, “Air Entrainment Rate and Diffusion Pattern of Plunging Liquid Jets,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, pp. 1161–1172.
Moursali,  E., Marie,  J. L., and Bataille,  J., 1995, “An Upward Turbulent Bubbly Boundary Layer Along a Vertical Flat Plate,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 21(1), pp. 107–117.
Chanson,  H., 2002, “Air-Water Flow Measurements With Intrusive Phase-Detection Probes. Can we Improve Their Interpretation?” J. Hydraul. Eng., 128(3), pp. 252–255.
Van de Sande,  E., and Smith,  J. M., 1973, “Surface Entrainment of Air by High Velocity Water Jets,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 28, pp. 1161–1168.
Clanet,  C., and Lasheras,  J. C., 1998, “Depth of Penetration of Bubbles Entrained by a Plunging Water Jet,” Phys. Fluids, 9(7), pp. 1864–1866.
Pandit,  A. B., Varley,  J., Thorpe,  R. B., and Davidson,  J. F., 1992, “Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution: An Acoustic Technique,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 47(5), pp. 1079–1089.
Cummings, P. D., and Chanson, H., 1998, “Individual Air Bubble Entrapment at a Planar Plunging Jet With Near-Inception Flow Conditions,” Proceedings, 13th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 13–18.
Strasberg,  M., 1953, “The Pulsation Frequency of Nonspherical Gas Bubbles in Liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 25, pp. 536–537.
Manasseh, R., Yoshida, S., and Rudman, M., 1998, “Bubble Formation Processes and Bubble Acoustic Signals,” Proc 3rd Intl. Conf. Multiphase Flow, ICMF98, J. Bataille, ed., Lyon, France.
Lu,  N. Q., Prosperetti,  A., and Yoon,  S. W., 1990, “Underwater Noise Emissions From Bubble Clouds,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 15(4), pp. 275–281.
Nicholas,  M., Roy,  R. A., Crum,  L. A., Oguz,  H., and Prosperetti,  A., 1994, “Sound Emissions by a Laboratory Bubble Cloud,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 95(6), pp. 3171–3182.
Lin,  T. J., and Donnelly,  H. G., 1966, “Gas Bubble Entrainment by Plunging Laminar Liquid Jets,” AIChE J., 12(3), pp. 563–571.
Van de Donk, J., 1981, “Water Aeration With Plunging Jets,” Ph.D. thesis, TH Delft, The Netherlands.


Grahic Jump Location
Vertical circular plunging jet apparatus. (a) Sketch of the apparatus, (b) high-speed photograph for V1=3.3 m/s,x1=0.1 m.
Grahic Jump Location
Dimensionless distributions of void-fraction and bubble count. Dashed line is solution of Eq. (1). Tu1 is turbulence intensity based on longitudinal velocity fluctuations at jet impact. (a) Jet height, x1=20 mm, jet velocity V1=5.0 m/s, Tu1=0.35%. (b) Jet height x1=100 mm, jet velocity V1=3.5 m/s, Tu1=0.39%.
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of the free jet length on the maximum void-fraction and bubble count. (a) Maximum void fraction, (b) maximum dimensionless bubble count.
Grahic Jump Location
Acoustic spectra, jet height x1=5 mm after 16
Grahic Jump Location
Bubble-size spectra, jet height x1=5 mm after 16
Grahic Jump Location
Void-fraction, bubble count, and detailed bubble size spectrum, jet height x1=5 mm, speed V1=3.9 m/s. Dashed line in (a) is solution of Eq. (1). Tu1 is turbulence intensity based on longitudinal velocity fluctuations; (b) after 16.
Grahic Jump Location
Bubble-size distribution, jet height x1=5 mm, speed V1=3.9 m/s (acoustic data after 16)
Grahic Jump Location
Bubble count rates and diameters as a function of jet speed V1, jet height x1=5 mm (acoustic data)
Grahic Jump Location
Acoustic spectra, jet height x1=100 mm
Grahic Jump Location
Bubble-size spectra, jet height x1=100 mm
Grahic Jump Location
Bubble count rates and diameters as a function of jet speed V1, jet height x1=100 mm




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In