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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Volumetric Gas Flow Standard With Uncertainty of 0.02% to 0.05%

[+] Author and Article Information
John D. Wright, Michael R. Moldover

Aaron N. Johnson

Process Measurements Division, Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20877

Akisato Mizuno

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kogakuin University, Nakano-Machi 2665, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan

J. Fluids Eng 125(6), 1058-1066 (Jan 12, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1624428 History: Received November 15, 2002; Revised June 04, 2003; Online January 12, 2004
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Berg, R., Green, D., and Mattingly, G., 2000, Semiconductor Measurement Technology: Workshop on Mass Flow Measurement and Control for the Semiconductor Industry, NIST Special Publication 400-101, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gasunie, Gaithersburg, MD, p. 17.
Wright, J., 2003, “What is the ‘Best’ Transfer Standard for Gas Flow?” Proceedings of FLOMEKO, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Olsen, L., and Baumgarten, G., 1971, “Gas Flow Measurement by Collection Time and Density in a Constant Volume,” Flow: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC, pp. 1287–1295.
Kegel, T., 1995, “Uncertainty Analysis of a Volumetric Primary Standard for Compressible Flow Measurement,” Proceedings of Flow Measurement 3rd International Symposium, San Antonio, TX, Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Nunn, Co.
Ishibashi, M., Takamoto, M., and Watanabe, N., 1985, “New System for the Pressurized Gas Flow Standard in Japan,” Proceedings of International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurements, American Gas Association.
Wright, J., 2001, “Laboratory Primary Standards in Flow Measurement,” Flow Measurement: Practical Guides for Measurement and Control, 2nd Ed., D. W. Spitzer ed., The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC, pp. 731–760.
Wright,  J., Johnson,  A., and Moldover,  M., 2003, “Design and Uncertainty Analysis for a PVTt Gas Flow Standard,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 108, pp. 21–47.
Wright, J., and Johnson, A., 2000, “Uncertainty in Primary Gas Flow Standards Due to Flow Work Phenomena,” Proceedings of FLOMEKO, Salvador, Brazil, Institute for Technological Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Carslaw, H., and Jaeger, J., 1946, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd Ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 198–201.
Jaeger, J., and Davis, R., 1984, A Primer for Mass Metrology, NBS Special Publication 700-1, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, p. 22.
Lemmon, E., McLinden, M., and Huber, M., 2002, Refprop 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties, NIST Standard Reference Database 23, Version 7.0, 7/30/02, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO.
International Organization for Standardization, 1996, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, Switzerland.

Figures

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Arrangement of equipment in the PVTt system
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Schematic diagram of the PVTt collection tanks, water bath, duct, and temperature control elements
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The collection tank pressure and the water bath temperature immediately following a tank filling, 25 slm in the 34 L tank
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Data from the pressure sensor in the inventory volume during a PVTt flow measurement, showing the transients that occur during the dead-end intervals
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Experimentally measured data (25 slm, 34 L collection system) and predictions for zero and nonzero sensor time constants. The predictions demonstrate that neglect of the sensors’ response times would cause significant error in the measurement of inventory conditions.
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Superimposed inventory data traces for a start diversion and a stop diversion in the 34 L tank at 25 slm demonstrating “symmetric” diverter valve behavior. The start dead-end time was approximately 50 ms; the stop dead-end time was approximately 15 ms longer.
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The time correction for the 34 L tank versus the time relative to the trigger signal indicating bypass valve closure
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The chain of measurements and equations used for the PVTt flow standard. The subcomponents are labeled with their relative standard uncertainty ×106 (k=1) for the 677 L system. The mass flow uncertainty is a k=2 or approximately 95% confidence value.
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Relative difference in the discharge coefficient of critical flow venturis calibrated on both the 34 L (Cd34) and 677 L (Cd677) flow standards versus flow and the inverse of the collection time for the 34 L tank. Also plotted is a linear best fit of the data.

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