An Active Flap Deployment System for Blade–Disturbance Interaction Alleviation

[+] Author and Article Information
Carter T. Nelson, Othon K. Rediniotis

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3141

J. Fluids Eng 126(6), 1006-1014 (Mar 11, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1839928 History: Received June 02, 2003; Revised March 29, 2004; Online March 11, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


George,  A. R., 1978, “Helicopter Noise: State-of-the-Art,” J. Aircr., 15, No. 11, November, pp. 707–714.
Widnall,  S. E., 1971, “Helicopter Noise due to Blade-Vortex Interaction,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 50, No. 1, Pt. 2, pp. 354–365.
Widnall,  S. E., and Martinez,  R., 1983, “An Aeroacoustic Model for High-Speed, Unsteady, Blade–Vortex Interaction,” AIAA J., 21, No. 9, September, pp. 1225–1231.
Hardin,  J. C., and Mason,  J. P., 1985, “A New Look at Sound Generation by Blade–Vortex Interaction,” Trans. ASME, J. Vib., Acoust., Stress, Reliab. Des., 107, No. 2, April, pp. 224–229.
Hardin, J. C., and Lamkin, S. L., “Aeroacoustic Interaction of a Distributed Vortex With a Lifting Joukwoski Airfoil,” AIAA Paper 84-2287, October 1984.
Hardin,  J. C., and Lamkin,  S. L., 1987, “An Euler Code Calculation of Blade–Vortex Interaction Noise,” Trans. ASME, J. Vib., Acoust., Stress, Reliab. Des., 109, No. 1, January, pp. 29–35.
Hardin,  J. C., and Lamkin,  S. L., 1987, “Concepts for Reduction of Blade–Vortex Interaction Noise,” J. Aircr., 24, No. 2, February, pp. 120–125.
Lee,  Soogab, 1994, “Reduction of Blade–Vortex Interaction Noise Through Porous Leading Edge,” AIAA J., 32, No. 3, March, pp. 480–488.
Hassan,  Ahmed A., Sankar,  L. N., and Tadghighi,  H., 1994, “Effects of Leading and Trailing Edge Flaps on the Aerodynamics of Airfoil–Vortex Interactions,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., April, pp. 35–46.
Lorber,  Peter F., 1993, “Blade–Vortex Interaction Data Obtained From a Pressure-Instrumented Model UH-60A Rotor at the DNW,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., July, pp. 26–34.
Lorber,  Peter F., 1991, “Aerodynamic Results of a Pressure-Instrumented Model Rotor Test at the DNW,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., October, pp. 66–76.
Splettstoesser,  W. R., Schultz,  K. J., and Martin,  R. M., 1990, “Rotor Blade–Vortex Interaction Impulsive Noise Source Localization,” AIAA J., 28, No. 4, April, pp. 593–600.
Martin, R. M., Elliot, J. W., and Hoad, D. R., “Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Predictions of Rotor Blade–Vortex Interactions Using Model Scale Acoustic Data,” AIAA Paper 84-2269, October 1984.
Booth,  Earl R., 1990, “Experimental Observations of Two-Dimensional Blade–Vortex Interaction,” AIAA J., 28, No. 8, August, pp. 1353–1359.
Booth, Earl R., “Surface Pressure Measurement During Low Speed Two-Dimensional Blade–Vortex Interaction,” AIAA Paper 86-1856, July 1986.
Booth, E. R., and Yu, J. C., “Two-Dimensional Blade–Vortex Interaction Flow Visualization Investigation,” AIAA Paper 84-2307, October 1984.
Straus,  J., Renzoni,  P., and Mayle,  R. E., 1990, “Airfoil Pressure Measurements During a Blade Vortex Interaction and a Comparison With Theory,” AIAA J., 28, No. 2, February, pp. 222–228.
Seath,  D. D., Kim,  Jai-Moo, and Wilson,  D. R., 1989, “Investigation of the Parallel Blade–Vortex Interaction at Low Speed,” J. Aircr., 26, No. 4, April, pp. 328–333.
Lee,  S., and Bershader,  D., 1994, “Head-On Parallel Blade–Vortex Interaction,” AIAA J., 32, No. 1, January, pp. 16–22.
Kalkhoran, I., Wilson, D., and Seath, D., “An Experimental Investigation of the Parallel Vortex–Airfoil Interaction at Transonic Speeds,” AIAA Paper 89-1833, June 1989.
Smith, D., and Sigl, D., “Helicopter Rotor Tip Shapes for Reduced Blade–Vortex Interaction an Experimental Investigation,” AIAA Paper 95-0192, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 1995.
Brooks,  Thomas F., and Booth,  Earl R., 1993, “The Effects of Higher Harmonic Control on Blade–Vortex Interaction Noise and Vibration,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., July, pp. 45–54.
Dawson, S., and Straub, F., “Design, Validation and Test of a Model Rotor With Tip Mounted Active Flaps,” AHS 50th Annual Forum, May 1994, Washington DC.
Marcolini, M., Booth, E., Tadghighi, H., Hassan, A., Smith, C., and Becker, L., “Control of BVI Noise Using an Active Trailing Edge Flap,” Presented at the 1995 AHS Vertical Lift Aircraft Design Conference, San Francisco, CA, January 1995.
Simonich,  J., Lavrich,  P., Sofrin,  T., and Topol,  D., 1993, “Active Aerodynamic Control of Wake–Airfoil Interaction Noise—Experiment,” AIAA J., 31, No. 10, October, pp. 1761–1768.
Nelson, C. T., “Effects of Trailing Edge Flap Dynamic Deployment on Blade–Vortex Interactions,” MS Thesis, Aerospace Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, August 97.
Walz, C., and Chopra, I., “Design and Testing of a Helicopter Rotor Model With Smart Trailing Edge Flaps,” AIAA Paper 94-1767, April 1994.
Webb,  G., Wilson,  L., Lagoudas,  D. C., and Rediniotis,  O. K., 2000, “Adaptive Control of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators for Underwater Biomimetic Applications,” AIAA J., 38, No. 2, Feb., pp. 325–334.
Rediniotis,  O., Wilson,  L., Lagoudas,  D., and Khan,  M., 2002, “Development of a Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuated Biomimetic Hydrofoil,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 13, No. 1, Jan., pp. 35–49.
Jun, H., “Development of a Fuel-Powered, Compact SMA Actuator System,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Aerospace Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, October 2003.
Garner,  L., Wilson,  L., Lagoudas,  D., and Rediniotis,  O., 2000, “Development of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuated Underwater Biomimetic Vehicle,” J. Smart Mater. Struct.,9, No. 5, Oct., pp. 673–683.
Lagoudas, D. C., and Miller, D. A., “Experiments of Thermomechanical Fatigue of SMAs,” Proceedings of the 1999 Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, SPIE, 1999, pp. 275–282.
Rae, W. H., and Pope, A., Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.
Rediniotis,  O. K., and Pathak,  M. M., 1999, “A Simple Technique for Frequency Response Enhancement of Miniature Pressure Probes,” AIAA J., 37, No. 7, July, pp. 897–899.
Abbott, I. H., and Von Doenhoff, A. E., Theory of Wing Sections, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1959.
Fung, Y. C., An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity, Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1993.
Lee, B. H. K., and Desrochers, J., “Flutter Analysis of a Two-Dimensional Airfoil Containing Structural Nonlinearities,” National Research Council Canada, LR-618, May, 1987.
Houbolt,  J. C., 1950, “A Recurrence Matrix Solution for the Dynamic Response of Elastic Aircraft,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 17, No. 9, pp. 540–550.
O’Neil, Todd, and Strganac, T. W., Nonlinear Aeroelastic Response—Analyses and Experiments, AIAA Paper 95-1404, April, 1995.


Grahic Jump Location
The two limiting cases of blade–vortex interaction
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the Active Flap Deployment System concept
Grahic Jump Location
Free response of the AFDS system and a single deployment
Grahic Jump Location
Schematics illustrate ways of accommodating all means of parameter variation (stiffness, moment of inertia, and amplitude of oscillation) inside the blade–flap
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of wind tunnel experiment test section setup
Grahic Jump Location
Surface pressure port locations
Grahic Jump Location
Pressure distribution of experimental setup with no TEF or vortex generator deployment
Grahic Jump Location
Parameter definition for the unsteady flap response formulation
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of CODE B results for different values of Φ
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of results from two different codes
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for the aerodynamic models
Grahic Jump Location
Typical vortex generator deployment used in the experiments
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of BDI pressure signatures with and without AFDS deployment for (a) pressure port 2, U=13 m/s (b) pressure port 1, U=20 m/s and (c) pressure port 1, U=22.6 m/s
Grahic Jump Location
An example of a typical AFDS deployment schedule
Grahic Jump Location
Pressure histories for U=22.6 m/s and several ports during: (a) During BDI interaction, (b) AFDS deployment, and (c) combination of both




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In