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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Computational Analysis of Pressure and Wake Characteristics of an Aerofoil in Ground Effect

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephen Mahon, Xin Zhang

Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering Sciences,  University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

J. Fluids Eng 127(2), 290-298 (Sep 27, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1891152 History: Received January 21, 2004; Revised September 27, 2004

The pressure and wake of an inverted cambered aerofoil in ground effect was studied numerically by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Efforts were focused on the setting up of an accurate numerical model and assessing the abilities of various turbulence models in capturing major physical features associated with the flow, such as surface pressure distribution, separation, level of downforce, and wake. A number of ride heights were studied covering various force regions. Surface pressures, sectional forces, and wake characteristics were compared to experimental data. The kω SST and Realizable kε turbulence models were found to offer good overall simulations, with the kω SST performing better for the surface pressure and the Realizable kε better for the wake. The simulations at various ride heights correctly captured the trends in flow-field variations with ride height. The surface pressures, wake flow field, and region of separation on the suction surface of the aerofoil, at lower ride heights, were all modeled accurately.

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Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Definition of the terms and coordinate system

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Figure 2

Schematic of computational domain

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Figure 3

Effect of grid density: (a) surface pressure distributions and (b) wake profiles at x∕c=1.2

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Figure 4

Effects of turbulence models: (a) surface pressures at h∕c=0.224, (b) wake profiles at x∕c=1.2 for h∕c=0.224, (c) surface pressures at h∕c=0.09, and (d) wake profiles at x∕c=1.2 for h∕c=0.09

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Figure 5

Surface pressures at various ride heights: (a) k−ω SST model and (b) Realizable k−ε

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Figure 6

Sectional forces at various ride heights

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Figure 7

Contours of u∕U∞ with the Realizable k−ε model: (a) h∕c=0.448 and (b) h∕c=0.09

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Figure 8

Streamwise location of separation for various ride heights

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Figure 9

Wake profiles at x∕c=1.2: (a) k−ω SST and (b) Realizable k−ε

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