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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Propulsion System Requirements for Long Range, Supersonic Aircraft

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael J. Brear

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australiamjbrear@unimelb.edu.au

Jack L. Kerrebrock, Alan H. Epstein

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

J. Fluids Eng 128(2), 370-377 (Mar 08, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2169810 History: Received April 29, 2004; Revised March 08, 2005

This paper discusses the requirements for the propulsion system of supersonic cruise aircraft that are quiet enough to fly over land and operate from civil airports, have trans-pacific range in the order of 11,112km(6000nmi), and payload in the order of 4545kg(10,000lb.). It is concluded that the resulting requirements for both the fuel consumption and engine thrust/weight ratio for such aircraft will require high compressor exit and turbine inlet temperatures, together with bypass ratios that are significantly higher than typical supersonic-capable engines. Several technologies for improving both the fuel consumption and weight of the propulsion system are suggested. Some of these directly reduce engine weight while others, by improving individual component performance, will enable higher bypass ratios. The latter should therefore also indirectly reduce the bare engine weight. It is emphasized, however, that these specific technologies require considerable further development. While the use of higher bypass ratio is a significant departure from more usual engines designed for supersonic cruise, it is nonetheless considered to be a practical option for an aircraft of this kind.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Effect of πc on (a) TSFC and (b) respective optimized BPR (M0R=2, 50% mixing, Tt4 and πf optimized, h=60kft.)

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Figure 2

Effect of πc on (a) TSFC and (b) respective optimized BPR (M0R=2, 50% mixing, Tt4=1940K, h=60kft.)

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Figure 3

Variation of TSFC with BPR∗ for (a) differing component efficiencies at M0R=2 and, (b) differing cruise Mach numbers and “current” component efficiencies (50% mixing, πc=15, Tt4=1940K, h=60kft.)

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Figure 4

Effect of % core mass flow used for HP turbine rotor cooling on TSFC for various Tt4 (M0R=2, 50% mixing “current” technology, πc=15, πf=2, h=60kft.)

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Figure 5

Ratio of thrust to cruise thrust along a path of constant dynamic pressure for the “aspirated configuration” and an equivalent turbojet (cruise at M0R=2, h=60kft.)

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Figure 6

Estimated drag-to-lift (L∕D) ratio along a path of constant dynamic pressure (cruise at M0R=2, h=60kft.)

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Figure 7

Acceleration along a path of constant dynamic pressure with (a) engines sized for cruise (b) 50% oversized engine at cruise and aircraft in 1-in-20 (∼3deg) dive (“current” technology, Tt4=1940K, cruise at M0R=2, h=60kft.)

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Figure 8

Variations in (a) inlet areas A0, A∗, and ASS areas normalized by cruise capture streamtube area (A0R) and (b) nozzle areas AS, A9, and A8 normalized by matched exit area at cruise (A9R) along a path of constant dynamic pressure (aspirated configuration, “current” technology, cruise at M0R=2, h=60kft.)

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Figure 9

Variation in (a) specific thrust and (b) TSFC for variable and fixed area nozzles along a path of constant dynamic pressure (aspirated configuration, “current” technology, cruise at M0R=2, h=60kft.)

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