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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Influence of Surface Roughness on the Aerodynamic Losses of a Turbine Vane

[+] Author and Article Information
Qiang Zhang, Matt Goodro

Convective Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-9208

Phillip M. Ligrani1

Convective Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-9208

Ricardo Trindade

Turbine Durability, United Technologies, Pratt and Whitney Corp., 400 Main Street, M/S 169-29, East Hartford, CT 06108

Sri Sreekanth

Turbine Cooling and Static Structures, Pratt and Whitney – Canada Corp. 22MC1, 1801 Courtney Park Drive East, Mississauga, Ontario L5T1J3, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 128(3), 568-578 (Oct 16, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2175163 History: Received February 03, 2005; Revised October 16, 2005

The effects of surface roughness on the aerodynamic performance of a turbine vane are investigated for three Mach number distributions, one of which results in transonic flow. Four turbine vanes, each with the same shape and exterior dimensions, are employed with different rough surfaces. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional roughness on the tested vanes is employed to match the roughness which exists on operating turbine vanes subject to extended operating times with significant particulate deposition on the surfaces. Wake profiles are measured for two different positions downstream the vane trailing edge. The contributions of varying surface roughness to aerodynamic losses, Mach number profiles, normalized kinetic energy profiles, Integrated Aerodynamics Losses (IAL), area-averaged loss coefficients, and mass-averaged loss coefficients are quantified. Total pressure losses, Mach number deficits, and deficits of kinetic energy all increase at each profile location within the wake as the size of equivalent sandgrain roughness increases, provided the roughness on the surfaces is uniform. Corresponding Integrated Aerodynamic Loss IAL magnitudes increase either as Mach numbers along the airfoil are higher, or as the size of surface roughness increases. Data are also provided which illustrate the larger loss magnitudes which are present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Also described are wake broadening, profile asymmetry, and effects of increased turbulent diffusion, variable surface roughness, and streamwise development.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of the test section, including wake coordinate system

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Figure 2

Test section vanes with rough surfaces. (a) Vane with uniform roughness. (b) Vane with variable roughness on pressure side.

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Figure 3

Mach number distributions along the test vane

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Figure 4

Distributions of acceleration parameter K

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Figure 5

Comparison of smooth vane wake total pressure loss coefficient profile with similar data from Ames and Plesniak (27)

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Figure 6

Three-dimensional Wyko profilometry traces of portions of the rough surfaces. (a) Simulated rough surface with small-sized roughness elements. (b) Rough surface from the pressure side of a turbine vane with particulate deposition from a utility power engine.

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Figure 8

Profiles measured at one axial chord length downstream of the test vane for Mex=0.71. (a) Normalized local total pressure losses. (b) Normalized local Mach numbers. (c) Normalized local kinetic energy.

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Figure 7

Profiles measured at 0.25 axial chord length downstream of the test vane for Mex=0.71. (a) Normalized local total pressure losses. (b) Normalized local Mach numbers. (c) Normalized local kinetic energy.

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Figure 9

Normalized local total pressure loss profiles measured at one axial chord length downstream of the test vane for Mex=0.50

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Figure 10

Normalized local total pressure loss profiles measured at one axial chord length downstream of the test vane for Mex=0.35

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Figure 11

Comparison of normalized integrated aerodynamic loss as dependent upon the normalized equivalent sand grain roughness size

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Figure 12

Comparison of normalized integrated aerodynamic loss magnitudes as dependent upon exit Mach number, and measured one chord length downstream of the airfoils

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Figure 13

Comparison of area averaged loss coefficient with Boyle and Senyitko (17), and Boyle (21)

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Figure 14

Comparison of mass averaged loss coefficients with similar results from Kind (10)

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