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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Hybrid Particle/Grid Method for Predicting Motion of Micro- and Macrofree Surfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Eiji Ishii

Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 832-2, Horiguchi, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0034, Japaneishii.ishii.pk@hitachi.com

Toru Ishikawa, Yoshiyuki Tanabe

Automotive Systems, Hitachi, Ltd., 2520 Takaba, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8503, Japan

J. Fluids Eng 128(5), 921-930 (Feb 28, 2006) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2234784 History: Received December 19, 2004; Revised February 28, 2006

We developed a method of hybrid particle/cubic interpolated propagation (CIP) to predict the motion of micro- and macrofree surfaces within gas-liquid flows. Microfree surfaces (smaller than the grid sizes) were simulated with the particle method, and macrofree surfaces (larger than the grid sizes) were simulated with the grid method (CIP is a kind of grid method). With the hybrid, velocities given by the advection part of the particle method were combined with those given by the advection part of CIP. Furthermore, the particles used with the particle method were assigned near the macrofree surfaces by using the volume fraction of liquid that was calculated with CIP. The method we developed was used to predict the collapse of a liquid column. Namely, it was simultaneously able to predict both large deformation in the liquid column and its fragmentation, and the predicted configurations for the liquid column agreed well with the experimentally measured ones. It was also used to predict the behavior of liquid films at the outlet of a fuel injector used for automobile engines. The particle method in the simulation was mainly used for liquid films in the air region and the grid method was used for the other regions to shorten the computational time. The predicted profile of the liquid film was very sharp in the air region where the liquid film became thinner than the grid sizes; there was no loss of liquid film with numerical diffusion.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Interpolation between particle coordinates and grid coordinates

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Figure 2

Assignment of CIP and MPS method to predict free surfaces in gas-liquid flows

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Figure 3

Boundary condition of MPS at wall

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Figure 4

Calculation algorithm for present method

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Figure 5

Geometry for collapse of water column

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Figure 6

Collapse of water column. Twenty-four grids are assigned per width a, and 120 particles are initially assigned per width a near free surface of water column.

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Figure 7

Distribution of volume fraction of liquid θ(CIP) in terms of particle coordinates at 0.7s

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Figure 8

Grid/number-of-density sensitivity study. Estimation of recovered scale with MPS by comparing cases using CIP with 24 and 48 grids per width a for water column: (a) 0.4, (b) 0.6, and (c) 0.8s.

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Figure 9

Motion of leading edge and top of water column

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Figure 10

Geometry for swirl fuel injector

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Figure 11

Computational grids: (a) 102,884 elements and (b) 209,428 elements (half size)

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Figure 12

Configurations for liquid films in swirl fuel injector used in automobile engines

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Figure 13

Configurations for liquid films at 0.16ms simulated with the VOF method

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Figure 14

Grid/number-of-density sensitivity study. Estimation of recovered scale with MPS by comparing cases using CIP with 102,884 and 209,428 elements: (a) CIP only and (b) present method.

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Figure 15

Configuration for liquid film in cutting plane along injector axis

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