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TECHNICAL PAPERS

CFD-Based Design Optimization for Hydro Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Jingchun Wu

 LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc., Goleta, CA, USAjwu@launchpnt.com

Katsumasa Shimmei

 Hitachi Ltd., Akihabara Dairu Building 18-13, Soto-Kanda, 1-Chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Kiyohito Tani, Kazuo Niikura

 Hitachi Ltd., 3-1-1 Saiwai-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan

Joushirou Sato

 Sato Consultants, 11-7 Namekawa, Honchou, 3-Chome, Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan

J. Fluids Eng 129(2), 159-168 (Jul 06, 2006) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2409363 History: Received August 11, 2005; Revised July 06, 2006

A computational fluid dynamics-based design system with the integration of three blade design approaches, automatic mesh generator and CFD codes enables a quick and efficient design optimization of turbine components. It is applied to a Francis turbine rehabilitation project with strict customer requirements to provide over 3% increase in peak efficiency, 13% upgrade in power, and improved cavitation characteristics. Extensive turbulent flow simulations are performed for both the existing and new turbines at design and off design conditions. In order to take into account the interactions between different components, particularly the effects between the rotating and stationary parts, coupling calculations based on the implicit coupling method under multiple frames of reference are carried out for the entire turbine model. As a result, the runner and guide vanes are optimized to the greatest extent, and the stay vanes are locally modified with a possible minimum cost under the geometrical constraints of the existing machine. The performance of the new design is verified by model tests, and exceeds required improvements.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

CFD-based design system

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Figure 2

Computational meshes: (a) surface grid of entire turbine model; and (b) surface grid of runner and guide vanes with the crown

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Figure 3

Comparison of meridional sections between existing and optimized runners.

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Figure 4

Efficiency hill chart of existing turbine (Q11opt=0.73, N11opt=65, and ηopt=92%)

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Figure 5

Velocities at the outlet of spiral casing (central plane)

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Figure 6

Pressure contours on central plane of existing tandem cascade

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Figure 7

Optimized guide vane and stay vane profiles

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Figure 8

Pressure contours on central plane of new tandem cascade

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Figure 9

Velocity vectors near blade surfaces of the existing runner at cell centers of the first layer grids: (a) pressure side, (b) suction side

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Figure 10

Pressure contours on surface of existing runner blade: (a) pressure side; (b) suction side

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Figure 11

Pressure distribution on different hydrofoil sections of existing runner and guide vane

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Figure 12

Pressure distribution on runner surfaces and velocity vectors near crown and band for the existing runner at Hmin operation

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Figure 13

Velocity vectors near blade surfaces of the new runner at cell centers of the first layer grids: (a) pressure side; (b) suction side

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Figure 14

Pressure contours on surfaces of new runner blade

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Figure 15

Pressure distribution on different hydrofoil sections of new runner and guide vane

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Figure 16

Configuration of new runner design

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Figure 17

Efficiency hill chart of new optimization design (Q11opt=0.88, N11opt=73.5, and ηopt=95.3%)

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Figure 18

Comparison of measured performance curves between existing and optimized turbines

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Figure 19

Comparison between measured η–Q curves and predicted efficiency at target operation point for the new runner with existing tandem cascade, and the entire new optimized design as well

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Figure 20

Measured model critical cavitation coefficients at rated head of Hr=73m(Q11opt=0.73)

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