Achenbach, E., 1968, “Distribution of Local Pressure Skin Friction Around a Circular Cylinder Flow up to Re=5×106,” J. Fluid Mech.

[CrossRef], 109 , pp. 239–251.

Bearman, P. W., 1969, “On Vortex Shedding From a Circular Cylinder in the Critical Reynolds Number Regime,” J. Fluid Mech.

[CrossRef], 37 , pp. 577–585.

Farell, C., and Blesmann, J., 1983, “On Critical Flow Around Circular Cylinders,” J. Fluid Mech.

[CrossRef], 136 , pp. 375–391.

Majumdar, S., and Rodi, W., 1985, “Numerical Calculations of Flow Past Circular Cylinder,” "*Proc. of 3rd Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows*", Long Beach, CA, San Francisco, pp. 13–25.

Bosch, G., and Rodi, W., 1998, “Simulation of Vortex Shedding Past a Square Cylinder With Different Turbulence Models,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids

[CrossRef], 28 , pp. 601–616.

Breuer, M. A., 2000, “Challenging Test Case for Large Eddy Simulation: High Reynolds Number Circular Cylinder Flow,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow

[CrossRef], 21 , pp. 648–654.

Jordan, S. A., and Ragab, S. A., 1998, “A Large-Eddy Simulation of the Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 120 , pp. 243–252.

Tutar, M., and Holdo, A. E., 2000, “Large Eddy Simulation of a Smooth Circular Cylinder Oscillating Normal to a Uniform Flow,” ASME J. Fluids Eng.

[CrossRef], 122 , pp. 694–702.

Tutar, M., and Holdo, A. E., 2001, “Computational Modelling of Flow Around a Circular Cylinder in Sub-Critical Flow Regime With Various Turbulence Models,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids

[CrossRef], 35 , pp. 763–784.

Spalart, P. R., 1988, “Direct Simulation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer up to Reθ=1410,” J. Fluid Mech.

[CrossRef], 187 , pp. 61–81.

Lund, T. S., Wu, X., and Squires, K. D., 1998, “Generation of Turbulent Inflow Data for Spatially Developing Boundary Layer Simulations,” J. Comput. Phys.

[CrossRef], 140 , pp. 233–258.

Lee, S., Lele, S. K., and Moin, P., 1992, “Simulation of Spatially Evolving Turbulence and the Applicability of Taylor’s Hypothesis in Compressible Flow,” Phys. Fluids A

[CrossRef], 4 , pp. 1521–1530.

Kondo, K., Murakami, S., and Mochida, A., 1997, “Generation of Velocity Fluctuations for Inflow Boundary Conditions of LES,” J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 67–68 , pp. 51–64.

Celik, I., Smirnov, A., and Smith, J., 1999, “Appropriate Initial and Boundary Conditions for LES of a Ship Wake,” "*Proc. of 3rd ASME/JFE Joint Fluids Engineering Conference*", San Francisco, ASME, New York, ASME Paper No. FEDSM99-7851, pp. 1–9.

Kraichnan, R. H., 1970, “Diffusion by a Random Velocity Field,” Phys. Fluids

[CrossRef], 13 , pp. 22–31.

Smirnov, A., Shi, S., and Celik, I., 2000, “Random Flow Simulations With a Bubble Dynamic Model,” "*Proc. of FEDSM00 ASME Fluids Eng. Division Summer Meeting*", June 11–15, Boston, ASME, New York, pp. 1–8.

Rodi, W., Ferziger, J. H., Breuer, M., and Pourquie, M., 1997, “Status of Large Eddy Simulation: Results of Workshop,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 119 , pp. 248–262.

de With, G., Holdo, A. E., and Huld, T. A., 2003, “The Use of Dynamic Grid Adaptation Algorithms for the Modelling of Flow Around a Circular Cylinder in Sub-Critical Flow Regime,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids

[CrossRef], 41 , pp. 789–808.

Tutar, M., 1998, “Computational Modelling of Vortex Shedding From Offshore Risers,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hertfordshire, UK.

Smagorinsky, J., 1963, “General Circulation Experiments With the Primitive Equations,” Mon. Weather Rev., 91 , pp. 99–152.

Fluent, 1998, "*Fidap Users Manual Version 8.6*", Fluent Inc., Lebanon, New Hampshire.

van Driest, E. R., 1956, “On The Turbulent Flow Near a Wall,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 23 , pp. 1007–1011.

Ramamurthy, A. S., and Ng, C. P., 1973, “Effect of Blockage a Steady Force Coefficients,” "*Proc. ASCE*", ASCE, New York, NY, EM4, pp. 755–772.

Cantwell, B., and Coles, D., 1983, “An Experimental Study of Entrainment and Transport in the Turbulent Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder,” J. Fluid Mech.

[CrossRef], 139 , pp. 321–374.

Beudan, P., and Moin, P., 1994, “Numerical Experiments on the Flow Past a Circular Cylinders at Sub-Critical Reynolds Numbers,” Report No. TF-62, Thermosciences Division, Dept. of Mech. Eng., Stanford Univ.

Franke, R., and Rodi, W., 1993, “Calculation of Vortex Shedding Past a Square Cylinder With Various Turbulence Models,” "*Turbulent Shear Flows*", F.Durstet al. , eds., Vol. 8 , Springer, New York, pp. 189–204.

Bouard, R., and Coutanceau, M., 1980, “The Early Stage of Development of The Wake Behind an Impulsively Started Cylinder for 40<Re<104,” J. Fluid Mech.

[CrossRef], 101 (3), pp. 583–607.

Kato, C., and Ikegawa, M., 1991, “Large Eddy Simulation of Unsteady Turbulent Wake Flow of a Circular Cylinder Using the Finite Element Method,” Advances in Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows, ASME 1991, FED-Vol. 117, pp. 49–56.

Fey, U., Köning, M., and Eckelmann, H., 1998, “A New Strouhal-Reynolds Number Relationship for the Circular Cylinder in the Range 47<Re<2×105,” Phys. Fluids

[CrossRef], 10 (7), pp. 1547–1549.

Zdravkovich, M. M., 1997, "*Flow Around Circular Cylinders, Fundamentals 1*", Oxford University Press, London.

Mittal, R., and Balachandar, S., 1995, “Effect of Three-Dimensionality on the Lift and Drag of Nominally Two-Dimensional Cylinders,” Phys. Fluids

[CrossRef], 7 (8), pp. 1841–1865.