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RESEARCH PAPERS

# Minimum Fuel Control of a Second-Order Linear Process With a Constraint on Time-to-Run

[+] Author and Article Information

Space and Information Systems Division, Raytheon Company, Bedford, Mass.

Bernard Friedland

Aerospace Research Center, General Precision, Inc., Little Falls, N. J.

J. Basic Eng 86(1), 160-168 (Mar 01, 1964) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3653101 History: Received July 30, 1963; Online November 03, 2011

## Abstract

The optimal control as a function of the instantaneous state, i.e., the optimal “feedback” or “closed-loop” control, is derived for the controlled second-order linear process with constant coefficients

ẍ + 2bẋ + c2x = u
for so-called minimum-fuel or minimum-effort operation (i.e., such that the time integral of the magnitude of the control u is minimized), subject to an amplitude limitation on the control |u| ≤ L. The objective is to force the phase state from an arbitrary instantaneous value (x, ẋ) to the origin within an arbitrarily prescribed time-to-run T. The solution is obtained for the nonoscillatory cases (b2 ≥ c2 ≥ 0) when L is finite, and for arbitrary real b and c when L is infinite; i.e., when the control is not amplitude-limited. The form of the optimal control is shown to be “bang-off-bang” with the most general initial conditions; i.e., during successive time intervals, u is constant at one limit, identically zero, and constant at the limit of opposite polarity. Explicit expressions for the switching surfaces in state space (T, x, ẋ) at which u changes value and, hence, of the optimal feedback control u (T, x, ẋ), are given, both with and without amplitude limitation. Without such (L = ∞) the optimal control is impulsive and the areas of the impulses in terms of the current state are obtained by a limiting procedure.

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