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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Surface Tension Measurement at High Temperatures by using Dynamics of Melt Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Moradian1

Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies, Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G8, Canada

J. Mostaghimi

Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies, Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G8, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 129(8), 991-1001 (Jan 25, 2007) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2746918 History: Received September 29, 2006; Revised January 25, 2007

Surface tension of melts at high temperature has significant effects on different industrial processes. In a new containerless method for surface tension measurement, an atmospheric radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma melts metallic or ceramic rods and a high-speed charge-coupled device records the drop formation caused by melting. Pendant drops produced by the melt flow are compared with the theoretical Young–Laplace (YL) profiles. Moreover, the dynamics of the melt flow is mimicked by using numerical simulations of drop injection from a nozzle. The numerical model solves the axisymmetric Navier–Stokes equations for both the melt and the surrounding gas by using the finite volume method. Since the YL equations provide theoretical pendant drop profiles based on an inviscid quasiequilibrium condition, a detailed study of the differences between experimental, numerical, and theoretical profiles demonstrates some of the hydrodynamic effects influencing the surface tension measurement methods, which are based on drop profiles. Results from this surface tension measurement method, in addition to a discussion on the hydrodynamic effects, are presented.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Figure 2

Schematic of the rf-ICP torch and the relative situation of samples

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Figure 3

Axial heating of a copper rod by rf-ICP

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Figure 4

Evolution of a PD of copper during the melting process

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Figure 5

Parameters for determining the profile of a PD

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Figure 6

Investigation of the symmetry for the drop during the formation

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Figure 7

Experimental and theoretical profiles of copper drop at different instances of time

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Figure 8

Surface tension calculated based on experimental profiles, results from DS, PD, and DW methods

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Figure 9

Surface tension of samples with different diameters calculated based on drop profiles

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Figure 10

Axisymmetric simulation of drop formation, results from numerical solution of full NS equations in cylindrical coordinates

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Figure 11

Profiles of the numerical drop

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Figure 12

Velocity field (a) and pressure contour (b) for a drop close to detachment time

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Figure 13

Average speed of the numerical drop. The speed includes the speed of all numerical cells containing the drop (defined in Eq. 12).

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Figure 14

Deviation of the numerical profile from quasiequilibrium condition during the drop formation

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Figure 15

Surface tension values based on fitting the YL and simulation profiles. Line: the input value for the simulation.

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Figure 16

Ratio of kinetic energy to surface energy for a numerical drop from formation to detachment. The kinetic energy was calculated based on the injection velocity.

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Figure 17

Effect of injecting flow on drop formation and surface tension measurement based on drop profiles, linear injection

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Figure 18

Effect of injecting flow on drop formation and surface tension measurement based on drop profiles, step injection

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