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RESEARCH PAPERS

Flow Field Characterization at the Onset of Gas Entrainment in a Single Downward Discharge Using Particle Image Velocimetry

[+] Author and Article Information
R. C. Bowden

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, H3G 2W1, Canada

I. G. Hassan1

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, H3G 2W1, Canadaibrahimh@alcor.concordia.ca

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 129(12), 1565-1576 (Jun 04, 2007) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2801356 History: Received July 17, 2006; Revised June 04, 2007

The incipience of two-phase flow in discharging branches from a stratified gas-liquid region has major implications in industrial applications where safety is of concern. An experimental investigation of the liquid side flow field at the onset of gas entrainment, in a single downward oriented discharging branch, was presented. Particle image velocimetry was used to measure the liquid side flow field in horizontal and vertical planes. Averaged velocity profiles were presented and demonstrated a highly radial flow. The particle image velocimetry data were validated using continuity and showed that the mass flow rate to be in the range of 10–25% of the expected value. Further, the vortex-free flow field assumption, used previously in the development of analytical and empirical models, was found to be reasonable.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Typical cross section of a CANDU header-feeder and (b) test section geometry to model the circular cross section

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Figure 2

Simplified schematic of the experimental test facility

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Figure 3

(a) Elevation view of the test section installed in the test facility. (b) Sectioned view of the test section surface demonstrating the alignment of investigated planes and coordinate system.

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Figure 4

(a) Typical vertical image plane setup using PIV and (b) its corresponding image plane and coordinate system

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Figure 5

(a) Typical horizontal image plane setup using PIV and (b) its corresponding image plane and coordinate system

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Figure 6

Gas entrainment in a single discharging bottom branch, PIV image in (a) vertical and (b) horizontal planes

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Figure 7

The critical height at the OGE using the current acrylic test section compared with Ahmad and Hassan (11)

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Figure 8

Velocity field with FrC=3.47 in horizontal planes at z∕d=0.94 for (a) Vr and (b) Vt, at z∕d=0.47 for (c) Vr and (d) Vt, and at z∕d=0 for (e) Vr and (f) Vt, and a vertical plane at (g) y∕d=0 for Vz

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Figure 10

Average values of (a) radial (Vr), (b) tangential (Vt) and (c) axial (Vz) velocity at three selected horizontal planes with Froude=3.47

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Figure 11

Average values of (a) radial (Vr), (b) tangential (Vt) and (c) axial (Vz) velocity at three selected horizontal planes with Froude=15.84

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Figure 12

Validation of PIV data using continuity and cylindrical control volume with (a) Fr=3.47 and (b) Fr=15.85

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Figure 9

Velocity field with FrC=15.84 in horizontal planes at z∕d=1.81 for (a) Vr and (b) Vt, at z∕d=0.91 for (c) Vr and (d) Vt, and at z∕d=0 for (e) Vr and (f) Vt, and a vertical plane at (g) y∕d=0 for Vz

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