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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Effervescent Atomization of Viscoelastic Liquids: Experiment and Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
S. C. Geckler1

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2014

P. E. Sojka2

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2014sojka@ecn.purdue.edu

1

Present address: FEV, Auburn Hills, MI.

2

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 130(6), 061303 (May 22, 2008) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2917430 History: Received June 29, 2007; Revised March 01, 2008; Published May 22, 2008

The effervescent atomization of viscoelastic liquids is reported. A total of 23 fluids, formulated from a 60wt% glycerine/40wt% water solvent to which were added varying concentrations (0.0010.5wt%) of poly(ethylene oxide) polymers whose molecular weights ranged from 12,000 to 900,000, were sprayed through a conventional effervescent atomizer. Mean drop sizes were measured using a forward light scattering instrument. The drop size (D32) data show the expected decrease with an increase in air-liquid ratio by mass (ALR), the expected increase with an increase in polymer concentration, plus an increase with an increase in polymer molecular weight for most cases. However, no significant change in D32 was observed for polymer solutions whose molecular weights ranged from 12,000 to 35,000, suggesting the presence of a critical molecular weight below which spray performance is unaltered. This argues for two different factors controlling drop size: Polymer molecular weight is most influential at the highest polymer concentrations while polymer concentration is most influential at the lowest polymer concentrations. Analysis of the spray formation process was carried out using a ligament formation model previously developed for the effervescent atomization of Newtonian liquids coupled with a linear stability model for the breakup of viscoelastic liquid jets. The jet breakup model assumes that an unrelaxed axial tension exists within the fluid. A comparison of model predictions and experimental data indicates that the model predicts the observed dependencies of mean drop size on ALR, polymer concentration, and polymer molecular weight. Quantitative agreement is within 10–50% of experimental values in all cases. Finally, a shortcoming of the model is noted and a means of avoiding this limitation reported.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 3

D32 versus ALR for six different polymer molecular weights and a common polymer concentration of 0.01% by mass

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Figure 4

D32 versus ALR for six different polymer molecular weights and a common polymer concentration of 0.15% by mass

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Figure 5

D32 versus ALR for four polymer molecular weights and a common polymer concentration of 0.5% by mass

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Figure 9

Measured and predicted D32 versus ALR for solutions having 60% glycerine–40% water solvent and containing 900,000molecular weight polymer in various concentrations

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Figure 2

D32 versus ALR for six different polymer molecular weights and a common polymer concentration of 0.001% by mass

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Figure 6

Near nozzle spray structure of the 100,000molecular weight polymer at a concentration of 0.15% and an ALR of 0.10

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Figure 7

Measured and predicted D32 versus ALR for solutions having 60% glycerine–40% water solvent and containing 35,000molecular weight polymer in various concentrations

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Figure 8

Measured and predicted D32 versus ALR for solutions having 60% glycerine–40% water solvent and containing 100,000molecular weight polymer in various concentrations

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Figure 1

Effervescent atomizer. The exit orifice is 1mm in diameter; the full included cone angle of the contraction is 118deg.

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