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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

An Experimental Study of the Flow Around a Formula One Racing Car Tire

[+] Author and Article Information
Emin Issakhanian, Chris J. Elkins, Kin Pong Lo, John K. Eaton

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305

J. Fluids Eng 132(7), 071103 (Jul 08, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001880 History: Received August 31, 2009; Revised May 21, 2010; Published July 08, 2010; Online July 08, 2010

The wake of the front tires affects the airflow over the remainder of a fenderless race car. The tires can also be responsible for up to 40% of the vehicle’s drag. Prior experiments have used compromised models with solid, symmetric hubs and nondeformable tires. The present experiment acquires particle image velocimetry measurements around a 60% scale model of a deformable pneumatic tire fitted to a spoked Formula 1 wheel with complete brake geometry and supplementary brake cooling ducts. The results show reversed flow regions in the tire wake, asymmetric longitudinal vortex structures behind the tire, and a tire wake profile that is unlike previous experimental results and postulations. The flow through the hub of the wheel causes a shift of the wake inboard (toward the car) so that the outboard side of the wake does not extend past the outline of the tire.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 11

Normalized Reynolds shear stress component u′w′¯/Ubulk2 downstream of the tire in the X-Z plane at y/D=0.77

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Figure 10

In-plane velocity vectors downstream of the tire in the Y-Z plane at x/D=1.14. The reference vector has been normalized by Ubulk.

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Figure 9

In-plane velocity vectors downstream of the tire in the Y-Z plane at x/D=0.57. The reference vector has been normalized by Ubulk.

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Figure 8

In-plane velocity vectors downstream of the tire in the X-Z plane at y/D=0.57. The reference vector has been normalized by Ubulk.

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Figure 7

In-plane velocity vectors downstream of the tire in the X-Z plane at y/D=0.66. The reference vector has been normalized by Ubulk.

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Figure 6

In-plane velocity vectors downstream of the tire in the X-Z plane at y/D=0.77. The reference vector has been normalized by Ubulk.

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Figure 5

In-plane velocity vectors upstream of the tire in the X-Z plane at y/D=0.77. The reference vector has been normalized by Ubulk.

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Figure 4

Normalized in-plane velocity vectors from the upstream cross-stream plane (a) before and (b) after the correction algorithm

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Figure 3

Top view of tire placement inside the wind tunnel. Dashed lines show five regions of the PIV investigations.

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Figure 2

Experimental setup for the PIV measurements in the Y-Z plane. The laser sheet is oriented perpendicular to the streamwise direction, and the camera is placed inside the wind tunnel looking upstream.

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Figure 1

Computer rendering of the wheel, tire, and brake cover configurations tested; left: inboard, right: outboard (14)

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Figure 12

Normalized Reynolds shear stress component u′w′¯/Ubulk2 downstream of the tire in the X-Z plane at y/D=0.66

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Figure 13

Normalized Reynolds shear stress component u′w′¯/Ubulk2 downstream of the tire in the X-Z plane at y/D=0.57

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Figure 14

Reynolds normal stress component w′¯/Ubulk downstream of the tire in the Y-Z plane at x/D=0.57. Tire center is at y/D=0.79.

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Figure 15

Reynolds normal stress component w′¯/Ubulk downstream of the tire in the Y-Z plane at x/D=1.14. Tire center is at y/D=0.79.

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