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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Liquid Sheet Breakup in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Atomizers

[+] Author and Article Information
V. Kulkarni, D. Sivakumar, C. Oommen

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 560012, India

T. J. Tharakan

Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, Indian Space Research Organization, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, India

J. Fluids Eng 132(1), 011303 (Jan 12, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000737 History: Received December 14, 2008; Revised November 24, 2009; Published January 12, 2010; Online January 12, 2010

The study deals with the breakup behavior of swirling liquid sheets discharging from gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers with attention focused toward the understanding of the role of central gas jet on the liquid sheet breakup. Cold flow experiments on the liquid sheet breakup were carried out by employing custom fabricated gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers using water and air as experimental fluids. Photographic techniques were employed to capture the flow behavior of liquid sheets at different flow conditions. Quantitative variation on the breakup length of the liquid sheet and spray width were obtained from the measurements deduced from the images of liquid sheets. The sheet breakup process is significantly influenced by the central air jet. It is observed that low inertia liquid sheets are more vulnerable to the presence of the central air jet and develop shorter breakup lengths at smaller values of the air jet Reynolds number Reg. High inertia liquid sheets ignore the presence of the central air jet at smaller values of Reg and eventually develop shorter breakup lengths at higher values of Reg. The experimental evidences suggest that the central air jet causes corrugations on the liquid sheet surface, which may be promoting the production of thick liquid ligaments from the sheet surface. The level of surface corrugations on the liquid sheet increases with increasing Reg. Qualitative analysis of experimental observations reveals that the entrainment process of air established between the inner surface of the liquid sheet and the central air jet is the primary trigger for the sheet breakup.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

A schematic of jets discharging from a gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizer

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Figure 2

A schematic of the gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizer used in the present study

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Figure 3

A typical image of the outer liquid sheet illustrating the details of θ, Lb, and SW

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Figure 4

Images of liquid sheets discharging from the gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizer CA1(S=25.7) for different combinations of Wel and Reg

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Figure 5

The influence of the central air jet on the flow behavior of the outer liquid sheet with Wel=114 discharging from the gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizer CA2(S=12.3). Wel remains constant for all the images shown in this figure.

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Figure 6

High resolution images illustrating the violent and complex breakup of the liquid sheet by the central air jet in the near region of the orifice exit. Atomizer configuration is CA2(S=12.3) and Wel=114.

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Figure 7

Enlarged view of the two-dimensional surface profiles of liquid sheets discharging from the gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizer CA2(S=12.3) with different combinations of Wel and Reg: (a) Wel=114, (b) Wel=144, and (c) Wel=270

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Figure 8

Quantitative variation in Lb with Reg for different values of Wel: (a) low values of Wel and (b) moderate and high values of Wel

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Figure 9

Variation in spray contraction parameter ξ with Reg for different values of Wel at different axial locations (Z) from the orifice exit (a and b). Atomizer configuration is CA2(S=12.3).

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Figure 10

Variation in tortuosity of the liquid sheet profile with Reg for liquid sheets with different Wel discharging from the gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizer CA2(S=12.3)

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