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Research Papers

Numerical Investigation of the Flow Around a Simplified Wheel in a Wheelhouse

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Krajnović

Division of Fluid Dynamics, Department of Applied Mechanics,  Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Swedensinisa@chalmers.se

S. Sarmast

Division of Fluid Dynamics, Department of Applied Mechanics,  Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden

B. Basara

AVL List GmbH,  Advanced Simulation Technologies, Graz, Austria

J. Fluids Eng 133(11), 111001 (Oct 13, 2011) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004992 History: Received March 01, 2011; Revised August 30, 2011; Published October 13, 2011; Online October 13, 2011

The flow around generic wheels in wheel housings used in previous experimental investigations is studied using large eddy simulations (LES). A comparison is given here of the results of the simulations with existing experimental data and previous results of RANS simulations. Both instantaneous and time-averaged flows are described, showing agreement with previous knowledge and adding new insight in flow physics. Two different widths of the wheel housing are used in the simulations, and their influence on the flows is studied. The present work shows that the width of the wheel housing has an influence on flows on both the inside and the outside of the wheelhouse.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic representation of the computational domain with vehicle body. (a) View side; (b) front view. Values of geometric parameters are given in Table 1.

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Figure 2

Details of the computational grid showing (a) plane y/H=1.66; (b) plane z/H=0.2; and (c) perspective view of the wheelhouse

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Figure 3

Wheelhouse side region pressure distribution CP and wheelhouse inner wheelhouse arch region details (a) Case 1, Width of inner wheelhouse arch region is divided into four rows and (b) Case 2, Width of inner wheelhouse arch region is divided into six rows

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Figure 4

Wheelhouses’ arch pressure coefficient distribution of Case 1, fine and coarse meshes and experiment. The first row (ROW 1) is at the outer edge of the wheelhouse. ROW 2 is inline with the wheel centerline. ROW 3 is inline with the inner edge of the wheel and ROW 4 is the inner edge of wheelhouse.

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Figure 5

Wheelhouse arch pressure coefficient CP distribution four rows in Fig. 3 for Case 1 and six rows in Fig. 3 for Case 2

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Figure 6

Wheel pressure coefficient distribution along three rows. The width of the wheelhouse is divided into three rows. Row 2 shows the wheel pressure distribution at the wheel’s centerline.

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Figure 7

Vortex cores and time-averaged streamlines projected into different vertical planes showing the time-averaged flow structure around the wheel inside the wheelhouse. The distance between each trace line plane field is 1/3 the wheel diameter. (a) View is from outside the body. Flow is from left to right. Figure (b) View is from the symmetry plane of the body showing the flow between the wheel and the wheelhouse. Flow is from right to left.

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Figure 8

Iso-surface of pressure p=1.0116 bar. (a) Case 1, side view, (b) Case 2, side view (c) Case 1, inside view, and (d) Case 2, inside view.

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Figure 9

Velocity vectors and streamlines in plane x=20 mm behind the wheel center showing the jetting vortices outside the wheelhouse in (a) Case 1 and (b) Case 2 and inside the wheelhouse in (c) Case 1 and Fig. (d) Case 2. View is from behind the wheel. The velocity vectors are not in scale and are shown on a uniform grid that is much more coarse than the computational grid for clarity.

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Figure 10

Vortex skeleton schematic model

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Figure 11

Iso-surface of the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor Q=6×106. (a) view and (b) inside view.

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Figure 12

Case 1. Iso-surface of second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor Q=1×107. The left and the right figures show the flow resulting in minimal and maximal drag, respectively. View in (a)(c) is from outside, front and inside the wheelhouse, respectively. The legend is for the static pressure on the wheel in Pa.

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Figure 13

Case 2. Iso-surface of second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor Q=1×107. The left and the right figures show the flow resulting in minimal and maximal drag, respectively. View in (a)(c) is from outside, front and inside the wheelhouse, respectively. The legend is for the static pressure on the wheel in Pa.

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Figure 14

(a) Time history of the drag signal. (b) Zoom of (a). PSD of the drag signal for (c) Case 1 and (d) Case 2.

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Figure 15

Case 2. Jetting vortex on the inner side of the wheel. Iso-surface of second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor Q=6×106. The time difference between the two pictures is t=0.5 or tU∞/D=0.196, where D is diameter of the wheel.

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Figure 16

Case 2. Iso-surface of second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor Q=2×107. The time difference between the two pictures is t=0.5 or tU∞/D=0.196, where D is diameter of the wheel. View from behind the wheel.

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Figure 17

Case 1. Iso-surface of second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor Q=2×107. The time difference between the two pictures is t=0.5 or tU∞/D=0.196, where D is diameter of the wheel. View from outside the wheelhouse and behind the wheel.

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