Technology Reviews

Review Paper on Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin O. L. Hansen, Helge Aagaard Madsen

 Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nils Koppels Alle, Build. 403, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark; Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491Trondheim, Norway e-mail: molh@mek.dtu.dk Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Wind Energy Division, Frederiksborgvej 300, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark e-mail: hama@risoe.dtu.dk

J. Fluids Eng 133(11), 114001 (Oct 19, 2011) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005031 History: Received April 14, 2011; Accepted August 16, 2011; Published October 19, 2011; Online October 19, 2011

The paper describes the development and description of the aerodynamic models used to estimate the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine constructions. This includes a status of the capabilities of computation fluid dynamics and the need for reliable airfoil data for the simpler engineering models. Also a discussion of the use of passive and active aerodynamic devices is included such as, e.g., Vortex Generators and distributed active flaps. Finally the problem of wakes in wind farms is addressed and a section of the likely future development of aerodynamic models for wind turbines is included.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Local flow past a section of a wind turbine blade showing the construction of the relative velocity and the local angle of attack as the difference between the flowangle, Φ , and the twist of the section with the rotor plane, θ .

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Figure 2

Sketch of a strip in the BEM model

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Figure 3

Measured and calculated power for the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine

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Figure 4

Comparison between measured and computed using BEM time series of the rotorshaft torque for the Tjaereborg machine during a step input of the pitch for a wind speed of 8.7 m/s. At t = 2 s the pitch is changed from 0 to 3.7 degrees and at t = 32 s the pitch is quickly changed back to 0 degrees.

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Figure 5

Operational range of angles of attack for mid span and close to the tip for a typical 500 kW stall regulated wind turbine

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Figure 6

Operational range of angles of attack for r/R = 0.35, 0.60 and 0.87 for a typical pitch regulated and variable speed 5 MW wind turbine

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Figure 7

Sketch of locations of vortex lines and their strength in a vortex model

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Figure 8

Iso-vorticity plot for NREL 5 MW virtual wind turbine, Vo  = 8 m/s and a yaw misalignement of 40°. The color reflects the size of the streamwise velocity.

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Figure 9

Velocity triangle for a blade on the 5 MW virtual wind turbine, Vo  = 8 m/s and a yaw misalignement of 40° when (a) pointing straight up and (b) pointing straight down

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Figure 10

Definition of yaw angle, θ yaw, and wake skew angle χ

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Figure 11

Azimuthal variation of the normal load at r = 48 m for the NREL 5 MW virtual wind turbine, Vo  = 8 m/s and a yaw misalignement of 40°

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Figure 12

Sketch of streamline past contra rotating VGs on wind turbine blade

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Figure 13

Sketch of flow seen from behind a cascade of contra rotatings VGs

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Figure 14

Sketch of flow past airfoil with a gurney flap mounted

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Figure 15

Sketch of flow past airfoil with a stall list mounted near the leading edge

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Figure 16

Comparison of aerodynamic device concepts in terms of lift control capability [97]

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Figure 17

Comparison of the flap effectiveness (relative change in lift per degree change of flap angle compared with the lift change per degree of pitch of the airfoil section) for three flap configurations at an angle of attack of 4° [99]

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Figure 18

Load reduction affected by signal delay (queue style) and first-order signal lag [106]




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