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Flows in Complex Systems

An Aerodynamic Investigation of an Isolated Stationary Formula 1 Wheel Assembly

[+] Author and Article Information
John Axerio-Cilies, Emin Issakhanian, Juan Jimenez, Gianluca Iaccarino

Mechanical Engineering Department,  Stanford University, 488 Escondido Mall, Stanford, CA 94305

J. Fluids Eng 134(2), 021101 (Mar 06, 2012) (17 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005768 History: Received December 15, 2010; Revised January 06, 2012; Published March 06, 2012; Online March 06, 2012

The flowfield around a 60% scale stationary Formula 1 tire in contact with the ground in a closed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 500,000 was computationally examined in order to assess the accuracy of different turbulence modeling techniques and confirm the existence of large scale flow features. A simplified and replica tire model that includes all brake components was tested to determine the sensitivity of the wake to cross flow within the tire hub along with the flow blockage caused by the brake assembly. The results of steady and unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations and a large eddy simulation (LES) were compared with the experimental data. The LES closure and the RANS closure that accounted for unsteadiness with low eddy viscosity (unsteady kω-SST) matched closest to the experimental data both in point wise velocity comparisons along with location and intensity of the strong counter-rotating vortex pair dominating the far wake of the tire.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Simplified wheel geometry with wheel fairings on both sides of rim: Configuration I

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Figure 2

Full wheel geometry with outer ducts, inner passages, and brake assembly: Configuration II

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Figure 3

Schematic of wind tunnel showing the boundaries of the computational domain

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Figure 4

Four different views showing the full geometry (CII) mesh

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Figure 5

Streamwise velocity grid sensitivity for a probe located in the center plane 1.5 diameters downstream from the center of the tire

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Figure 6

Sensitivity of the time step size using a URANS R model for a probe located in the wake of the stationary tire (1.5 wheel diameters downstream from the wheel hub)

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Figure 7

Comparison of λ2 iso-surfaces for two turbulence models and two wheel configurations

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Figure 8

Inboard and outboard vortex location comparison for CI at x/D = 1.11

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Figure 9

Inboard and outboard vortex location comparison for CII at x/D = 1.11

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Figure 10

Contour plot of the inplane velocity showing 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270° radial profiles for both the inboard and outboard vortex

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Figure 11

CI vortex eccentricity and intensity shown by plotting nondimensionalized (by half of the distance between CVP cores) radial distance from the core of the vortex versus the inplane velocity (v2+w2)

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Figure 12

CII vortex eccentricity and intensity shown by plotting nondimensionalized (by half of the distance between CVP cores) radial distance from the core of the vortex versus the inplane velocity (v2+w2)

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Figure 13

Time averaged vortex core locations using 1000 time steps for both the inboard (δ) and outboard (circle) vortex cores and the time averaged trajectory using all time steps of both vortex cores

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Figure 14

Fast Fourier transform of spanwise velocity LES data for a probe located on the tire centerline, 19.8 cm above the ground and 0.48 m downstream of the tire

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Figure 15

Rear outboard isometric view of CII showing the inboard, center, and outboard contact patch streamwise planes

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Figure 16

Contour plot of the unsteady R (1e-3 s) center plane velocity magnitude (u2+v2+w2) for CII. The black boxes in the wake of the tire represent the PIV window locations, and the five white dotted lines represent the locations where velocity profiles were compared.

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Figure 17

Streamwise CI velocity profiles

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Figure 18

Vertical CI velocity profiles

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Figure 19

Streamwise CII velocity profiles

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Figure 20

Vertical CII velocity profiles

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Figure 21

Profiles of normalized turbulent kinetic energy (knorm ) at three streamwise locations for the center plane. CI LES (—), CI kω-SST (- -), CI Reynolds stress (-·-), CI Realizable (-  -), and CII Realizable (-··-).

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Figure 22

Profiles of urms /Ubulk at three streamwise locations for the center plane. CI LES (—), CI PIV (-  -), and CII PIV (-·-).

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Figure 23

Profiles of wrms /Ubulk at three streamwise locations for the center plane. CI LES (—), CI PIV (-  -), and CII PIV (-·-).

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Figure 24

Time-averaged surface pressure profiles around the tire for the streamwise center plane

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