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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

A Series Pressure Drop Representation for Flow Through Orifice Tubes

[+] Author and Article Information
T. A. Jankowski1

Mechanical and Thermal Engineering Group (AET-1), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS J580, Los Alamos, NM 87545jankowski@lanl.gov

E. N. Schmierer, F. C. Prenger

Mechanical and Thermal Engineering Group (AET-1), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS J580, Los Alamos, NM 87545

S. P. Ashworth

Superconductivity Technology Center (MPA-STC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T004, Los Alamos, NM 87545

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 130(5), 051204 (May 05, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2907408 History: Received July 23, 2007; Revised February 27, 2008; Published May 05, 2008

A simple model is developed here to predict the pressure drop and discharge coefficient for incompressible flow through orifices with length-to-diameter ratio greater than zero (orifice tubes) over wide ranges of Reynolds number. The pressure drop for flow through orifice tubes is represented as two pressure drops in series; namely, a pressure drop for flow through a sharp-edged orifice in series with a pressure drop for developing flow in a straight length of tube. Both of these pressure drop terms are represented in the model using generally accepted correlations and experimental data for developing flows and sharp-edged orifice flow. We show agreement between this simple model and our numerical analysis of laminar orifice flow with length-to-diameter ratio up to 15 and for Reynolds number up to 150. Agreement is also shown between the series pressure drop representation and experimental data over wider ranges of Reynolds number. Not only is the present work useful as a design correlation for equipment relying on flow through orifice tubes but it helps to explain some of the difficulties that previous authors have encountered when comparing experimental observation and available theories.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

A typical orifice flow configuration

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Figure 2

Data collected by Johansen (10) for sharp-edged orifices over a wide range of Reynolds number and diameter ratio

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Figure 3

Discharge coefficient predicted by Eq. 12 for sharp-edged orifices and orifice tubes with β⩽0.25; the data points are from Johansen (10) for a sharp-edged (L∕d=0) orifice with β=0.209

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Figure 4

The computational domain used in the numerical simulation of flow through orifice tubes

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Figure 5

Data from the numerical simulations with β=0.25 compared to Eq. 12

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Figure 6

Experimental data from Hasegawa (16) compared to Eq. 12; Hasegawa do not report the value of β, which is presumably small β<0.25

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Figure 7

Experimental data of Phares (6) compared to the series pressure drop representation developed here; for the data of Phares β, ranges from 0.008 to 0.016

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Figure 8

Equation 12 compared to the experimental data collected by Kiljanski (15); in the experiments by Kiljanski, β ranges from 0.05 to 0.13

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