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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Hydraulic Circuit Design Rules to Remove the Dependence of the Injected Fuel Amount on Dwell Time in Multijet CR Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Mirko Baratta, Andrea Emilio Catania, Alessandro Ferrari

IC Engines Advanced Laboratory, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy

J. Fluids Eng 130(12), 121104 (Oct 27, 2008) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2969443 History: Received July 30, 2007; Revised June 10, 2008; Published October 27, 2008

In multijet common rail (CR) systems, the capability to manage multiple injections with full flexibility in the choice of the dwell time (DT) between consecutive solenoid current pulses is one of the most relevant design targets. Pressure oscillations triggered by the nozzle closure after each injection event induce disturbances in the amount of fuel injected during subsequent injections. This causes a remarkable dispersion in the mass of fuel injected when DT is varied. The effects of the hydraulic circuit layout of CR systems were investigated with the objective to provide design rules for reducing the dependence of the injected fuel amount on DT. A multijet CR of the latest solenoid-type generation was experimentally analyzed at different operating conditions on a high performance test bench. The considerable influence that the injector-supplying pipe dimensions can exert on the frequency and amplitude of the injection-induced pressure oscillations was widely investigated and a physical explanation of cause-effect relationships was found by energetics considerations, starting from experimental tests. A parametric study was performed to identify the best geometrical configurations of the injector-supplying pipe so as to minimize pressure oscillations. The analysis was carried out with the aid of a previously developed simple zero-dimensional model, allowing the evaluation of pressure-wave frequencies as functions of main system geometric data. Pipes of innovative aspect ratio and capable of halving the amplitude of injected-volume fluctuations versus DT were proposed. Purposely designed orifices were introduced into the rail-pipe connectors of a commercial automotive injection system, so as to damp pressure oscillations. Their effects on multiple-injection performance were experimentally determined as being sensible. The resulting reduction in the injector fueling capacity was quantified. It increased by lowering the orifice diameter. The application of the orifice to the injector inlet-pipe with innovative aspect ratio led to a hydraulic circuit solution, which coupled active and passive damping of the pressure waves and minimized the disturbances in injected fuel volumes. Finally, the influence of the rail capacity on pressure-wave dynamics was studied and the possibility of severely reducing the rail volume (up to one-fourth) was assessed. This can lead to a system not only with reduced overall sizes but also with a prompter dynamic response during engine transients.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Multiple-injection solenoid CR system evolution

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Figure 2

Injection system layout (a) and electroinjector main internal features (b)

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Figure 6

Inlet-pipe diameter influence on natural period T

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Figure 15

Response of the system (l=125mm and d=2.4mm) to a pilot injection without (a) and with (b) the gauged orifice: (a) commercial layout and (b) layout with the orifice

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Figure 16

Orifice effect on injector characteristics (l=125mm, d=2.4mm, and Vrail=20cm3)

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Figure 17

Response of the system (l=125mm and d=2.4mm) to a main injection without (a) and with (b) the gauged orifice: (a) commercial layout and (b) layout with the orifice

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Figure 18

Effect of the main injection duration on the response of the system (l=125mm and d=2.4mm) with the gauged orifice

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Figure 19

Main injection volume deviations, prail=1000bar: (a) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=600μs and (b) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=900μs

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Figure 20

Pressure-wave period versus rail volume

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Figure 21

Gauged cylinders for rail-volume reduction

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Figure 22

Main injection volume deviations for different rail capacities: (a) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=600μs and (b) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=900μs

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Figure 23

Pressure distributions for different rail volumes: (a) injector inlet pressure, ET=1000μs and (b) rail pressure, ET=1000μs

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Figure 24

Injector characteristics for different rail volumes

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Figure 3

Injected flow-rate time history (ETmain=1000μs, prail=1000bar, and n=2000rpm)

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Figure 4

Pressure time histories: (a) l=200mm, d=2.4mm and (b) l=80mm, d=4mm

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Figure 7

Inlet-pipe length influence on natural period T

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Figure 8

Main injected-volume deviations for different pipe lengths (prail=1000bar): (a) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=600μs and (b) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=900μs

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Figure 9

Main injected-volume deviations for different pipe diameters (prail=1000bar): (a) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=600μs and (b) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=900μs

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Figure 10

Main injected-volume deviations for different pipe diameters (prail=1000bar): (a) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=600μs and (b) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=900μs

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Figure 11

Injector characteristics for different pipe sizes (prail=1000bar)

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Figure 12

Main injected-volume deviations for different pipe diameters (prail=1000bar): (a) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=600μs and (b) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=900μs

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Figure 14

Orifice effect on main injection volume deviations for pipe dimensions l=125mm and d=2.4mm (prail=1000bar): (a) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=600μs and (b) ETpil=400μs, ETmain=900μs

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