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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Maximum Drag Reduction Asymptote of Polymeric Fluid Flow in Coiled Tubing

[+] Author and Article Information
Subhash N. Shah

Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, Well Construction Technology Center, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019subhash@ou.edu

Yunxu Zhou1

Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, Well Construction Technology Center, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019YunxuZhou@yahoo.com

1

Now with NOV CTES, 9870 Pozos Lane, Conroe, TX 77303.

J. Fluids Eng 131(1), 011201 (Nov 26, 2008) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3026578 History: Received February 15, 2007; Revised October 11, 2008; Published November 26, 2008

This study experimentally investigates the drag reduction characteristics of the most commonly used polymer fluids in coiled tubing applications. The flow loop employed consists of 12.7mm straight and coiled tubing sections. The curvature ratio (aR, where a and R are the radii of the tubing and the reel drum, respectively) investigated is from 0.01 to 0.076, which covers the typical curvature ratio range encountered in the oil and gas industry applications. Fluids tested include xanthan gum, guar gum, and hydroxypropyl guar at various polymer concentrations. It is found that the drag reduction in coiled tubing is significantly lower than that in straight tubing, probably due to the effect of secondary flow in curved geometry. The onset of drag reduction is also found to be delayed as the curvature ratio was increased. A correlation for the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote in coiled tubing is developed. When the curvature ratio is set to zero, the new correlation reduces to the well-known Virk’s MDR asymptote for dilute polymer solutions in straight pipes. A new drag reduction envelope is proposed for the analysis of drag reduction behavior of polymeric fluids in coiled tubing. Application of the new drag reduction envelope is also discussed.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of laboratory-scale flow loop

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Figure 2

Drag reduction of 1.198kg∕m3 HPG in 12.7mm OD straight and coiled tubing

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Figure 3

Drag reduction of 2.397kg∕m3 HPG in 12.7mm OD straight and coiled tubing

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Figure 4

Drag reduction of 3.595kg∕m3 HPG in 12.7mm OD straight and coiled tubing

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Figure 5

Effect of curvature ratio on drag reduction studied by Yokoyama and Tomita (Ref. 15)

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Figure 6

Drag reduction of guar fluids in 60.33mm OD straight and coiled tubing (a∕R=0.0185)

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Figure 7

Friction factors at maximum drag reduction for CT on Prandtl–Karman coordinates, 1∕f versus NRegf

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Figure 8

Drag reduction envelope showing the drag reduction behavior of 3.595kg∕m3 xanthan in 12.7mm OD CT

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Figure 9

Effect of curvature ratio on DR of 1.198kg∕m3 HPG in 12.7mm OD coiled tubing

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Figure 10

Effect of curvature ratio on DR of 3.595kg∕m3 HPG in 12.7mm OD coiled tubing

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Figure 11

Effect of curvature ratio on DR of 1.198kg∕m3 xanthan in 12.7mm OD coiled tubing

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Figure 12

Effect of curvature ratio on DR of 3.595kg∕m3 xanthan in 12.7mm OD coiled tubing

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Figure 13

Effect of xanthan concentration on DR in 12.7mm OD straight tubing

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Figure 14

Effect of xanthan concentration on DR in 12.7mm OD coiled tubing with curvature ratio a∕R=0.019

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Figure 15

Effect of xanthan concentration on DR in 25.4mm OD coiled tubing with curvature ratio a∕R=0.0113

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Figure 16

Effect of xanthan concentration on DR in 60.33mm OD coiled tubing with curvature ratio a∕R=0.0185

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