Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Parameters for Assessing Oil Reservoir Water Flooding Additives

[+] Author and Article Information
Nico Reuvers

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Michael Golombok1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlandsm.golombok@tue.nl


Also at Shell Exploration and Production, Kessler Park 1, 2288 GS Rijswijk, The Netherlands.

J. Fluids Eng 131(3), 031302 (Feb 04, 2009) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3077142 History: Received May 26, 2008; Revised December 22, 2008; Published February 04, 2009

This paper is concerned with deriving parameters for assessing the effectiveness of fluid additives to improve water flooding during enhanced oil recovery. We focus particularly on the use of rheological modifiers, which do not show monotonic behavior with the shear rate within the rock pores. We derive figures of merit based on (1) relative retardation in high and low permeability rock, (2) profile flattening, and (3) injectivity index. Only the last of these provides a measure of water flood profile improvement while maintaining sufficient fluid flow and production levels.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Water profile between an injector (I) and producer (P) in a section of reservoir rock with schematically indicated regions of low permeability (κlo) and high permeability (κhi). Line A indicates the idealized water front advance and curve B indicates the varying profile fronts, which arise due to varying permeability. Curve C shows profile obtained after the use of additives described in the text.

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Figure 2

Two responses for viscosity as a function of shear rate: (a) classic monotonic power law response for a shear thickener, and (b) response associated with shear induced structure materials

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Figure 3

Pressure drop as a function of superficial velocity for water (straight line) and a solution containing shear induced structure additives (positively deviating curve). (a) refers to a low permeability Fontainebleau sandstone and (b) to a high permeability Berea sandstone. The parameters defined in the text are indicated.

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Figure 4

Effect of shear induced structure materials on flow in regions of high and low reservoir permeabilities. Parameters defined in the text are indicated. The dotted line refers to water flow and the solid line refers to flow after addition of chemicals.

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Figure 5

Relative retardation ratios for a high permeability rock as a function of relative retardation in low permeability rock for different concentrations of shear induced structure additives in water. The four regions defined in the text for flow behavior are also indicated.

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Figure 6

Different possible effects on high and low permeability sections of flow profiles as a result of shear induced structure chemical solution. The dark and gray arrows refer to regions of high and low permeabilities, respectively. The arrow to the right indicates acceleration and the arrows to the left indicate retardation.

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Figure 7

The velocity decrease or increase with respect to the water velocity (u0H,u0L). An upwards directed arrow indicates a velocity increase with respect to the base fluid. A velocity decrease is indicated by a downward arrow.

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Figure 8

Uniformity index η as a function of the ratio of the surfactant to salt concentration

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Figure 9

Relationship between relative injectivity indices (defined in text) and the profile uniformity parameter




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