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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Systematic Approaches for Design of Distribution Manifolds Having the Same Per-Port Outflow

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew W. Chen

 3M Company, Building 260-6N-04, St. Paul, MN 55144awchen@mmm.com

Ephraim M. Sparrow

Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455esparrow@umn.edu

J. Fluids Eng 131(6), 061101 (May 13, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3111256 History: Received January 18, 2008; Revised November 29, 2008; Published May 13, 2009

Two geometric modalities were investigated to determine their effects on the degree of uniformity of the flow issuing from a manifold through a discrete set of exit ports. The goal of the investigation was to demonstrate how these geometric parameters can be used to achieve a high degree of exit-flow uniformity. The first investigated modality is the area ratio, which compares the total outflow area of all the exit ports with the cross-sectional area of the manifold. The second modality is the extent of pressure loading downstream of the exit ports of the manifold. The investigation was facilitated by numerical simulation for which an appropriate turbulence model was used. Three parameters were varied during the course of the research: (a) the area ratio, (b) the downstream pressure loading characterized by the length-to-diameter ratio of the outflow tubes that are attached to the exit ports, and (c) the Reynolds number. It was found that the area ratio parameter had a marked effect on the uniformity of the outflow from the manifold. Quantitative values of the area ratio corresponding to specified degrees of uniformity (i.e., 2%, 5%, and 10%) were identified. This information can be used as a guideline for manifold design. The imposition of the downstream pressure loading was also demonstrated to have a significant effect on the degree of uniformity, but that effect was not as strong as the effect of the area ratio. The manifold pressure was found to increase from the inlet of the manifold to the downstream end of the manifold. The direction of the jetlike discharge from the exit ports of the manifold into a large collection domain was found to vary along the length of the manifold, with inclined jets emanating from the upstream end and perpendicular jets at the downstream end. Over the range of investigated Reynolds numbers, from 40,000 to 200,000, the degree of uniformity of the mass effusion from the exit ports was found to be unaffected. The results of the numerical simulations were confirmed by experiments.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

The distribution manifold fitted with outflow tubes to convey its discharge to a collection manifold

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Figure 3

Cross-sectional views revealed by a plane perpendicular to the axis of the distribution manifold: (a) view with an outlet tube in place and (b) view without an outlet tube

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Figure 10

Streamwise variations in the manifold pressure for £/d=0.564, 5, 15, and 45 and for Re=110,000

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Figure 11

Departure angles at exit ports 1, 2, and 3; (a) Aports/Amanifold=0.695 and (b) Aports/Amanifold=0.135; Re=110,000

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Figure 12

Departure angles at exit ports 37, 38, and 39; (a) Aports/Amanifold=0.695 and (b) Aports/Amanifold=0.135; Re=110,000

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Figure 13

Comparison of numerical predictions for Aports/Amanifold=0.695 without downstream loading with experimental data

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Figure 1

Schematic of the physical system

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Figure 4

Streamwise distribution of the rate of fluid flow effusing from individual exit ports, Re=110,000

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Figure 5

Effect of Reynolds number on the streamwise variation in the per-port effusing mass flow rate, Aports/Amanifold=0.135 and 0.695

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Figure 6

Relationship between the overall pressure difference and the total mass flow rate for Re=40,000, 110,000, and 200,000 and for Aports/Amanifold between 0.135 and 0.695

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Figure 7

Effect of the £/d ratio of the outflow tubes on the streamwise variation in the per-port mass flow rate, Re=110,000 and Aports/Amanifold=0.695

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Figure 8

Effect of the Reynolds number on the streamwise distribution of the per-port mass flow rate, £/d=45 and Aports/Amanifold=0.695

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Figure 9

Streamwise variations in the manifold pressure for various area ratios Aports/Amanifold=0.135, 0.345, 0.538, and 0.695 and for Re=110,000

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