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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Experimental Study of Liquid Slosh Dynamics in a Partially-Filled Tank

[+] Author and Article Information
Guorong Yan1

Concave Research Centre, Concordia University, 1455 de Maiosnneuve West, Montréal, QC, H3G 1M8, Canadaguorong_yan@hotmail.com

Subhash Rakheja, Kamran Siddiqui

Concave Research Centre, Concordia University, 1455 de Maiosnneuve West, Montréal, QC, H3G 1M8, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fluids Eng 131(7), 071303 (Jun 22, 2009) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3059585 History: Received April 30, 2007; Revised November 01, 2008; Published June 22, 2009

This article reports on an experimental study conducted to investigate slosh forces and moments caused by fluid slosh within a partly-filled tank subjected to lateral and longitudinal excitations applied independently. The experiments were performed on a scale model cleanbore and a baffled tank with laterally placed single- and multiple-orifice baffles. The experiments were conducted for three different fill volumes and different types of excitations: continuous harmonic and single-cycle sinusoidal excitations of different amplitudes and discrete frequencies. The dynamic forces and moments caused by fluid slosh with the baffled and cleanbore tank configurations were measured for different fill volumes and excitations using three-axis dynamometers. It is shown that the resulting forces and moments comprise many spectral components that can be associated with the excitation, resonance, and vibration and beat frequencies. Modulation of excitation frequency with the resonant frequency was also evident for all fill conditions and tank configurations when the two were in close proximity. The results also showed that the peak amplifications of forces and moments occur in the vicinity of the resonant frequency. At higher frequencies, the peak magnitudes of the forces, however, reduced significantly to values lower than the inertial forces developed by an equivalent rigid mass. At a given excitation condition, the slosh force amplitude increased with a decrease in the fill volume. It was also observed that the presence of baffles has negligible effect on the lateral slosh force and the corresponding resonant frequency. However, it caused a significant increase in the longitudinal mode resonant frequency. The baffles greatly reduced the amplifications in longitudinal force and pitch moment under longitudinal acceleration excitations.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of (a) test tank (all dimensions are in millimeters) and (b) single-orifice (T1) and multiple-orifice (T2) baffles

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Figure 2

Schematic of the tank illustrating local and global coordinate systems and locations of the three dynamometers (D1, D2, and D3)

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Figure 3

The lateral single-cycle sinusoidal acceleration functions and the corresponding displacement at frequencies: solid line, 1 Hz and dash-dotted line, 1.5 Hz

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Figure 4

Frequency spectra of slosh force components for 50%-filled unbaffled (T0) and baffled (T2) tanks subject to 1 m/s2 lateral acceleration excitation at 0.7 Hz: (a) lateral force, (b) longitudinal force, and (c) vertical force

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Figure 5

Time histories of lateral (Fy) and vertical (Fz) slosh forces developed in 50%-filled cleanbore tank (T0) under 0.5 m/s2 lateral acceleration excitation at 1.3 Hz. The dashed line illustrates the wave envelope attributed to beating phenomenon in slosh.

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Figure 6

Dominant mode frequency of the slosh force (fp) versus the excitation frequency (fe) for 50%-filled baffled tank (T1): (a) lateral force and (b) vertical force (open diamond, A=0.5 m/s2 and open triangle, A=2 m/s2)

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Figure 7

Time histories of longitudinal slosh force (Fx) developed in 50%-filled cleanbore tank subject to longitudinal acceleration excitations: (a) A=0.5 m/s2 at 0.6 Hz and (b) A=0.5 m/s2 at 1 Hz

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Figure 8

Beating frequency (fb) versus the excitation frequency (fe) for the cleanbore tank subjected to the lateral acceleration excitation of 0.5 m/s2. Open square, 50% fill volume; open triangle, 70% fill volume; open symbols, lateral force; and solid symbols, vertical force. The computed values are shown by continuous lines: solid line, 50% fill volume and dashed line, 70% fill volume.

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Figure 9

Normalized slosh force and moment components versus the excitation frequency for 50%-filled cleanbore tank under lateral acceleration excitations (open diamond, A=0.5 m/s2; open square, A=1 m/s2; open triangle, A=2 m/s2; and open circle, A=3 m/s2: (a) lateral force, (b) longitudinal force, (c) vertical force, (d) roll moment, (e) pitch moment, and (f) yaw moment (note that the scales vary for different parameters)

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Figure 10

Time histories of three slosh force components developed in 50%-filled cleanbore tank subjected to 1 m/s2 lateral acceleration excitation at 1 Hz

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Figure 11

Peak amplification factors of lateral force (MFy) and roll moment (MMx) versus the lateral acceleration excitation amplitude for all tank configurations: (a) 30%, (b) 50%, and (c) 70% fill volumes

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Figure 12

Peak amplification factors of longitudinal (MFx) and vertical (MFz) slosh forces, and pitch (MMy) and yaw (MMz) moments versus the tank configuration for all fill volume cases

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Figure 13

Peak amplification factors of longitudinal and lateral forces, and pitch moment versus the excitation frequency for 50%-filled tanks: (a) “T0” tank and (b) “T2” tank (open diamond, =0.25 m/s2; open square, =0.5 m/s2; and open triangle, =1 m/s2)

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Figure 14

Peak amplification factors of longitudinal slosh force and pitch moment versus the excitation amplitude for three tank configurations under longitudinal acceleration excitations: (a) 30%, (b) 50%, and (c) 70% fill volumes

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Figure 15

Peak amplification factors of roll and yaw moments versus tank configurations for three fill volumes subjected to longitudinal acceleration excitations

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Figure 16

Peak amplification factors of lateral and vertical slosh forces versus the fill volumes for the three tank configurations subjected to single-cycle lateral acceleration excitations: (a) 1.9 m/s2 at 1 Hz and (b) 4.3 m/s2 at 1.5 Hz

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Figure 17

Peak amplification factors of roll, pitch, and yaw moments versus the fill volumes for three tank configurations subjected to single-cycle lateral acceleration excitations: (a) 1.9 m/s2 at 1 Hz and (b) 4.3 m/s2 at 1.5 Hz

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